[USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 64, SUBCHAPTER I: FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND DEFINITIONS
Result 1 of 1
   
 
7 USC CHAPTER 64, SUBCHAPTER I: FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND DEFINITIONS
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 64—AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, EXTENSION, AND TEACHING

SUBCHAPTER I—FINDINGS, PURPOSES, AND DEFINITIONS

§3101. Purposes of agricultural research, extension, and education

The purposes of federally supported agricultural research, extension, and education are to—

(1) enhance the competitiveness of the United States agriculture and food industry in an increasingly competitive world environment;

(2) increase the long-term productivity of the United States agriculture and food industry while maintaining and enhancing the natural resource base on which rural America and the United States agricultural economy depend;

(3) develop new uses and new products for agricultural commodities, such as alternative fuels, and develop new crops;

(4) support agricultural research and extension to promote economic opportunity in rural communities and to meet the increasing demand for information and technology transfer throughout the United States agriculture industry;

(5) improve risk management in the United States agriculture industry;

(6) improve the safe production and processing of, and adding of value to, United States food and fiber resources using methods that maintain the balance between yield and environmental soundness;

(7) support higher education in agriculture to give the next generation of Americans the knowledge, technology, and applications necessary to enhance the competitiveness of United States agriculture;

(8) maintain an adequate, nutritious, and safe supply of food to meet human nutritional needs and requirements; and

(9) support international collaboration that leverages resources and advances priority food and agricultural interests of the United States, such as—

(A) addressing emerging plant and animal diseases;

(B) improving crop varieties and animal breeds; and

(C) developing safe, efficient, and nutritious food systems.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1402, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1602(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3705; amended Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §801, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1156; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7101, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4779.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3101, Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1402, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 981; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1402, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1294; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1402, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1542, stated Congressional findings, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(A), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3704.

Amendments

2018—Par. (9). Pub. L. 115–334 added par. (9).

1996Pub. L. 104–127 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which set out six purposes of federally funded agricultural research and extension programs.

Short Title of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–465, §1, Dec. 21, 2004, 118 Stat. 3882, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 3123a, 7712a, and 8321 of this title, amending section 5925 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1621 and 5925 of this title] may be cited as the 'Specialty Crops Competitiveness Act of 2004'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–161, §1, Dec. 6, 2003, 117 Stat. 2014, provided that: "This Act [enacting section 3151a of this title] may be cited as the 'National Veterinary Medical Service Act'."

Short Title of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1401, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1542, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1632, 3224, 3292, 3319a to 3319d, and 4701 to 4710 of this title, amending this section and sections 178c, 342, 343, 390 to 390d, 390f, 390h, 390i, 390j, 2266, 2662, 2663, 3103, 3121 to 3123, 3124a, 3125, 3151, 3152, 3157, 3194 to 3196, 3221 to 3223, 3291, 3311, 3312, 3318, 3319, 3322, 3324, 3335, and 3336 of this title, repealing sections 390e, 390g, 3174, 3177, 3301 to 3304, and 3323 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 343, 390, 390c, 3157, 3173, 3292, 3311, 3312, and 4701 of this title, amending provisions set out as a note under section 3222 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 2281 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1985'."

Short Title of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1401, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1294, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 2271, 2661 to 2667, 3124a, 3223, 3317 to 3319, 3321 to 3324, and 3331 to 3336 of this title, amending this section and sections 322, 361c, 390c, 3102, 3103, 3121 to 3124, 3125 to 3128, 3151 to 3154, 3157, 3175, 3177, 3191, 3192, 3194 to 3196, 3221, 3222, 3263, 3282, 3291, 3311, and 3312 of this title, section 5315 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, sections 582a, 582a–1, and 582a–3 to 582a–5 of Title 16, Conservation, section 483 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and sections 6651 and 8852 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 2670 and 3176 of this title, omitting section 2668 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2281 and 3176 of this title] may be cited as the 'National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act Amendments of 1981'."

Short Title of 1935 Amendment

Act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436 (see Tables for classification), is popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act".

Short Title

Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1401, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 981, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter and sections 2669 and 2670 of this title, amending sections 341, 342, 343, 361c, 390 to 390j, 1923, 1942, 2662, 2663, 2667, 3104, and 3157 of this title and section 6651 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealing section 390k of this title] may be cited as the 'National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977'."

Review of Agricultural Research Service

Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7404, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 457, as amended by Pub. L. 108–11, title II, §2101(b), Apr. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7511(c)(7), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1267; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7511(c)(7), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 2029, which provided for the establishment of a task force to review the Agricultural Research Service and to evaluate the merits of establishing one or more National Institutes related to food and agricultural science, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7506, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4823.

§3102. Additional purposes of agricultural research and extension

The purposes of this chapter are to—

(1) establish firmly the Department of Agriculture as the lead agency in the Federal Government for the food and agricultural sciences, and to emphasize that agricultural research, extension, and teaching are distinct missions of the Department of Agriculture;

(2) undertake the special measures set forth in this chapter to improve the coordination and planning of agricultural research, extension, and teaching programs, identify needs and establish priorities for these programs, assure that national agricultural research, extension, and teaching objectives are fully achieved, and assure that the results of agricultural research are effectively communicated and demonstrated to farmers, processors, handlers, consumers, and all other users who can benefit therefrom;

(3) increase cooperation and coordination in the performance of agricultural research by Federal departments and agencies, the States, State agricultural experiment stations, colleges and universities, and user groups;

(4) enable the Federal Government, the States, colleges and universities, and others to implement needed agricultural research, extension, and teaching programs, through the establishment of new programs and the improvement of existing programs, as provided for in this chapter;

(5) establish a new program of grants for high-priority agricultural research to be awarded on the basis of competition among research workers and all colleges and universities;

(6) establish a new program of grants for facilities and instrumentation used in agricultural research; and

(7) establish a new program of education grants and fellowships to strengthen research, extension, and teaching programs in the food and agricultural sciences, to be awarded on the basis of competition.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1403, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1403, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1296; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1602(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3705.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original this "title", meaning title XIV of Pub. L. 95–113, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 981, as amended, which enacted this chapter and sections 2669 and 2670 of this title, amended sections 341, 342, 343, 361c, 390 to 390j, 1923, 1942, 2662, 2663, 2667, 3104, and 3157 of this title and section 6651 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealed section 390k of this title. For complete classification of such title to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section catchline generally.

1981—Par. (2). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(1), inserted "extension, and teaching programs," and substituted "these programs" for "such research, assure that high priority research is given adequate funding".

Par. (4). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(2), substituted "programs through" for "programs, including the initiatives specified in section 3101(8) of this title, through".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(3), substituted "among research workers" for "among scientific research workers".

Par. (7). Pub. L. 97–98, §1403(4), substituted "research, extension, and teaching" for "training and research".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

§3103. Definitions

When used in this chapter:

(1) The term "Advisory Board" means the National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board.

(2) The term "agricultural research" means research in the food and agricultural sciences.

(3) The term "aquaculture" means the propagation and rearing of aquacultural species, including, but not limited to, any species of finfish, mollusk, or crustacean (or other aquatic invertebrate), amphibian, reptile, ornamental fish, or aquatic plant, in controlled or selected environments.

(4) College and university.—

(A) In general.—The terms "college" and "university" mean an educational institution in any State which (i) admits as regular students only persons having a certificate of graduation from a school providing secondary education, or the recognized equivalent of such a certificate, (ii) is legally authorized within such State to provide a program of education beyond secondary education, (iii) provides an educational program for which a bachelor's degree or any other higher degree is awarded, (iv) is a public or other nonprofit institution, and (v) is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association.

(B) Inclusions.—The terms "college" and "university" include a research foundation maintained by a college or university described in subparagraph (A).


(5) Cooperating forestry school.—

(A) In general.—The term "cooperating forestry school" means an institution—

(i) that is eligible to receive funds under Public Law 87–788 (commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act; 16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.); and

(ii) with respect to which the Secretary has not received a declaration of the intent of that institution to not be considered a cooperating forestry school.


(B) Termination of declaration.—A declaration of the intent of an institution to not be considered a cooperating forestry school submitted to the Secretary shall be in effect until September 30, 2018.


(6) The term "cooperative extension services" means the organizations established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 (38 Stat. 372–374, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 341–349), and section 209(b) of the Act of October 26, 1974 (88 Stat. 1428, as amended; D.C. Code, sec. 31–1719(b)).

(7) The term "Department of Agriculture" means the United States Department of Agriculture.

(8) The term "extension" means the informal education programs conducted in the States in cooperation with the Department of Agriculture.

(9) Food and agricultural sciences.—The term "food and agricultural sciences" means basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in food and fiber, agricultural, renewable energy and natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, including activities relating to the following:

(A) Animal health, production, and well-being.

(B) Plant health and production.

(C) Animal and plant germ plasm collection and preservation.

(D) Aquaculture.

(E) Food safety.

(F) Soil, water, and related resource conservation and improvement.

(G) Forestry, horticulture, and range management.

(H) Nutritional sciences and promotion.

(I) Farm enhancement, including financial management, input efficiency, and profitability.

(J) Home economics.

(K) Rural human ecology.

(L) Youth development and agricultural education, including 4–H clubs.

(M) Expansion of domestic and international markets for agricultural commodities and products, including agricultural trade barrier identification and analysis.

(N) Information management and technology transfer related to agriculture.

(O) Biotechnology related to agriculture.

(P) The processing, distributing, marketing, and utilization of food and agricultural products.


(10) Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities.—

(A) In general.—The term "Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities" means colleges or universities—

(i) that qualify as Hispanic-serving institutions;

(ii) that offer associate, bachelors, or other accredited degree programs in agriculture-related fields; and

(iii) with respect to which the Secretary has not received a declaration of the intent of a college or university to not be considered a Hispanic-serving agricultural college or university.


(B) Exception.—The term "Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities" does not include 1862 institutions (as defined in section 7601 of this title).

(C) Termination of declaration of intent.—A declaration of the intent of a college or university to not be considered a Hispanic-serving agricultural college or university submitted to the Secretary shall be in effect until September 30, 2018.


(11) Hispanic-serving institution.—The term "Hispanic-serving institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1101a of title 20.

(12) Insular area.—The term "insular area" means—

(A) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico;

(B) Guam;

(C) American Samoa;

(D) the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands;

(E) the Federated States of Micronesia;

(F) the Republic of the Marshall Islands;

(G) the Republic of Palau; and

(H) the Virgin Islands of the United States.


(13) The term "land-grant colleges and universities" means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of July 2, 1862 (12 Stat. 503–505, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 301–305, 307 and 308), or the Act of August 30, 1890 (26 Stat. 417–419, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 321–326 and 328), including Tuskegee University.

(14) NLGCA institution; non-land-grant college of agriculture.—

(A) In general.—

(i) Definition.—The terms "NLGCA Institution" and "non-land-grant college of agriculture" mean a public college or university offering a baccalaureate or higher degree in the study of agricultural sciences, forestry, or both in any area of study specified in clause (ii).

(ii) Clarification.—For purposes of clause (i), an area of study specified in this clause is any of the following:

(I) Agriculture.

(II) Agricultural business and management.

(III) Agricultural economics.

(IV) Agricultural mechanization.

(V) Agricultural production operations.

(VI) Aquaculture.

(VII) Agricultural and food products processing.

(VIII) Agricultural and domestic animal services.

(IX) Equestrian or equine studies.

(X) Applied horticulture or horticulture operations.

(XI) Ornamental horticulture.

(XII) Greenhouse operations and management.

(XIII) Turf and turfgrass management.

(XIV) Plant nursery operations and management.

(XV) Floriculture or floristry operations and management.

(XVI) International agriculture.

(XVII) Agricultural public services.

(XVIII) Agricultural and extension education services.

(XIX) Agricultural communication or agricultural journalism.

(XX) Animal sciences.

(XXI) Food science.

(XXII) Plant sciences.

(XXIII) Soil sciences.

(XXIV) Forestry.

(XXV) Forest sciences and biology.

(XXVI) Natural resources or conservation.

(XXVII) Natural resources management and policy.

(XXVIII) Natural resource economics.

(XXIX) Urban forestry.

(XXX) Wood science and wood products or pulp or paper technology.

(XXXI) Range science and management.

(XXXII) Agricultural engineering.

(XXXIII) Any other area, as determined appropriate by the Secretary.


(B) Designation.—Not later than 90 days after Feb. 7, 2014, the Secretary shall establish an ongoing process through which public colleges or universities may apply for designation as an NLGCA Institution.

(C) Exclusions.—The terms "NLGCA Institution" and "non-land-grant college of agriculture" do not include any institution designated under—

(i) the Act of July 2, 1862 (commonly known as the "First Morrill Act"; 7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.);

(ii) the Act of August 30, 1890 (commonly known as the "Second Morrill Act") (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.); or

(iii) the Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994 (Public Law 103–382; 7 U.S.C. 301 note).


(15) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Agriculture of the United States.

(16) State.—The term "State" means—

(A) a State;

(B) the District of Columbia; and

(C) any insular area.


(17) The term "State agricultural experiment stations" means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of March 2, 1887 (24 Stat. 440–442, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 361a–361i).

(18) The term "State cooperative institutions" or "State cooperative agents" means institutions or agents designated by—

(A) the Act of July 2, 1862 (7 U.S.C. 301 et seq.), commonly known as the First Morrill Act;

(B) the Act of August 30, 1890 (7 U.S.C. 321 et seq.), commonly known as the Second Morrill Act, including Tuskegee University;

(C) the Act of March 2, 1887 (7 U.S.C. 361a et seq.), commonly known as the Hatch Act of 1887;

(D) the Act of May 8, 1914 (7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.), commonly known as the Smith-Lever Act;

(E) the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962;

(F) section 3192 of this title; and

(G) subchapters VI, XI, and XII of this chapter.


(19) The term "sustainable agriculture" means an integrated system of plant and animal production practices having a site-specific application that will, over the long-term—

(A) satisfy human food and fiber needs;

(B) enhance environmental quality and the natural resource base upon which the agriculture economy depends;

(C) make the most efficient use of nonrenewable resources and on-farm resources and integrate, where appropriate, natural biological cycles and controls;

(D) sustain the economic viability of farm operations; and

(E) enhance the quality of life for farmers and society as a whole.


(20) Teaching and education.—The terms "teaching" and "education" mean formal classroom instruction, laboratory instruction, and practicum experience in the food and agricultural sciences and matters relating thereto (such as faculty development, student recruitment and services, curriculum development, instructional materials and equipment, and innovative teaching methodologies) conducted by colleges and universities offering baccalaureate or higher degrees.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1404, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 983; Pub. L. 97–98, title XIV, §1404, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 99–198, title XIV, §1403, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1544; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVI, §1603, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3705; Pub. L. 102–237, title IV, §402(3), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1863; Pub. L. 104–127, title VIII, §§802(b)(1), 815(b), 820(a), 853(b)(1), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1159, 1167, 1168, 1172; Pub. L. 105–185, title II, §§221, 226(c)(1), June 23, 1998, 112 Stat. 537, 543; Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7502(a), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 110–234, title VII, §7101(a), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1212; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title VII, §7101(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1973; Pub. L. 113–79, title VII, §§7101, 7111(b)(1), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 862, 873; Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7102(a), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4779.)

References in Text

For definition of "this chapter", referred to in text, see note set out under section 3102 of this title.

Public Law 87–788 or Act of October 10, 1962, referred to in pars. (5)(A)(i) and (18)(E), is Pub. L. 87–788, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 806, popularly known as the "McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962" and also as the "McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act", which is classified generally to subchapter III (§582a et seq.) of chapter 3 of Title 16, Conservation. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 582a of Title 16 and Tables.

The Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914, referred to in pars. (6) and (18)(D), is act May 8, 1914, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§341 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 341 of this title and Tables.

Act of July 2, 1862, 12 Stat. 503, referred to in pars. (13), (14)(C)(ii)(I), and (18)(A), is popularly known as the "Morrill Act" and also as the "First Morrill Act", which is classified generally to subchapter I (§301 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 301 of this title and Tables.

Act of August 30, 1890, 26 Stat. 417, referred to in pars. (13), (14)(C)(ii)(II), and (18)(B), is popularly known as the "Agricultural College Act of 1890" and also as the "Second Morrill Act", which is classified generally to subchapter II (§321 et seq.) of chapter 13 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 321 of this title and Tables.

The Equity in Educational Land-Grant Status Act of 1994, referred to in par. (14)(C)(ii)(III), is Pub. L. 103–382, title V, part C, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4048, which is set out as a note under section 301 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Act of March 2, 1887, referred to in pars. (17) and (18)(C), is act Mar. 2, 1887, ch. 314, 24 Stat. 440, popularly known as the Hatch Act of 1887, which is classified generally to sections 361a to 361i of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 361a of this title and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Amendments

2018—Par. (14)(A). Pub. L. 115–334, §7102(a)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The terms 'NLGCA Institution' and 'non-land-grant college of agriculture' mean a public college or university offering a baccalaureate or higher degree in the study of food and agricultural sciences."

Par. (14)(C). Pub. L. 115–334, §7102(a)(2), inserted "any institution designated under" after "include" in introductory provisions, redesignated subcls. (I) to (III) of cl. (ii) as cls. (i) to (iii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (i), which read "Hispanic-serving agricultural colleges and universities; or", introductory provisions of former cl. (ii) which read "any institution designated under—", and subcl. (IV) of former cl. (ii) which read "Public Law 87–788 (commonly known as the 'McIntire-Stennis Cooperative Forestry Act') (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.)."

2014—Par. (5). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(1), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "The term 'cooperating forestry schools' means those institutions eligible to receive funds under the Act of October 10, 1962 (16 U.S.C. 582a et seq.), commonly known as the McIntire-Stennis Act of 1962."

Par. (10)(A). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(2)(A), struck out "that" after "colleges or universities" in introductory provisions, inserted "that" before "qualify" in cl. (i) and before "offer" in cl. (ii), and added cl. (iii).

Par. (10)(C). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(2)(B), added subpar. (C).

Par. (14)(A). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(3)(A), substituted "food and agricultural sciences" for "agriculture or forestry".

Par. (14)(B), (C). Pub. L. 113–79, §7101(3)(B), (C), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Par. (18)(F). Pub. L. 113–79, §7111(b)(1)(A), (D), added subpar. (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 113–79, §7111(b)(1)(B), substituted "subchapters VI," for "subchapters V, VI,".

Par. (18)(G). Pub. L. 113–79, §7111(b)(1)(C), redesignated subpar. (F) as (G).

2008—Par. (4). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(1), inserted par. heading, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. heading, redesignated former subpars. (A) to (E) as cls. (i) to (v), respectively, of subpar. (A), and added subpar. (B).

Pars. (5) to (8). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), designated pars. (16) and (5) to (7) as (5) to (8), respectively. Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (8) as (9), substituted "renewable energy and natural resources" for "renewable natural resources" in introductory provisions, added subpar. (F), and struck out former subpar. (F) which read as follows: "Soil and water conservation and improvement." Former par. (9) redesignated (11).

Par. (10). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(4), added par. (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (12).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(5), added par. (11) and struck out former par. (11) which read as follows: "The term 'Hispanic-serving institution' has the meaning given the term by section 1059c(b)(1) of title 20."

Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), redesignated par. (9) as (11). Former par. (11) redesignated (13).

Pars. (12), (13). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (12) and (13), respectively. Former pars. (12) and (13) redesignated (15) and (16), respectively.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(6), added par. (14). Former par. (14) redesignated (17).

Pars. (15) to (20). Pub. L. 110–246, §7101(a)(2), redesignated pars. (12) to (14), (17), (18), and (15) as (15) to (20), respectively. Former par. (16) redesignated (5).

2002—Pars. (10) to (12). Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(1), (2), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (11) and (12), respectively, and added par. (10). Former par. (12) redesignated (13).

Par. (13). Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(3), added par. (13) and struck out former par. (13) which read as follows: "The term 'State' means any one of the fifty States, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the District of Columbia."

Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(1), redesignated par. (12) as (13). Former par. (13) redesignated (14).

Pars. (14) to (18). Pub. L. 107–171, §7502(a)(1), redesignated pars. (13) to (17) as (14) to (18), respectively.

1998Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(1), substituted "chapter:" for "chapter—" in introductory provisions.

Pars. (1) to (3). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (4). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(3), (5), substituted "The terms" for "the terms" and period for semicolon at end.

Pars. (5) to (7). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (8). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(a), added par. (8) and struck out former par. (8) which defined term "food and agricultural sciences" in broadest sense of terms, including but not limited to activities relating to agriculture, food processing, forestry, acquaculture, home economics, rural community welfare, youth development, market expansion, improvement of productivity, and international food and agricultural issues.

Par. (9). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(4), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" after "(9)" and substituted period for semicolon at end.

Par. (10). Pub. L. 105–185, §§221(c)(2), (5), 226(c)(1), substituted "The term" for "the term", "Tuskegee University" for "the Tuskegee Institute", and period for semicolon at end.

Pars. (11) to (13). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(b), (c)(5), inserted par. heading, substituted "The terms 'teaching' and 'education' mean" for "the term 'teaching' means", and substituted period for semicolon at end.

Par. (15). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), (5), substituted "The term" for "the term" and period for semicolon at end.

Par. (16). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), substituted "The term" for "the term" in introductory provisions.

Par. (16)(B). Pub. L. 105–185, §226(c)(1), substituted "Tuskegee University" for "the Tuskegee Institute".

Par. (16)(F). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(6), substituted period for "; and" at end.

Par. (17). Pub. L. 105–185, §221(c)(2), substituted "The term" for "the term".

1996—Par. (1). Pub. L. 104–127, §802(b)(1), substituted "National Agricultural Research, Extension, Education, and Economics Advisory Board" for "National Agricultural Research and Extension Users Advisory Board".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 104–127, §820(a), inserted "ornamental fish," after "reptile,".

Par. (9). Pub. L. 104–127, §815(b), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (9) read as follows: "the term 'Joint Council' means the Joint Council on Food and Agricultural Sciences;".

Pars. (16) to (18). Pub. L. 104–127, §853(b)(1), inserted "and" at end of par. (16), substituted a period for "; and" at end of par. (17), and struck out par. (18) which read as follows: "the term 'Technology Board' means the Agricultural Science and Technology Review Board established in section 3123a of this title."

1991—Par. (18). Pub. L. 102–237 inserted "and" after "Science".

1990—Par. (16)(F). Pub. L. 101–624, §1603(2), inserted reference to subchapter VI of this chapter.

Pars. (17), (18). Pub. L. 101–624, §1603(1), (3), added pars. (17) and (18).

1985—Par. (8)(J). Pub. L. 99–198 added subpar. (J).

1981—Par. (8). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(1), substituted in provision preceding subpar. (A) "basic, applied, and developmental research, extension, and teaching activities in the food, agricultural, renewable natural resources, forestry, and physical and social sciences, in the broadest sense of these terms, including but not limited to, activities relating to" for "sciences relating to food and agriculture in the broadest sense, including the social, economic, and political considerations of", in subpar. (E) "including consumer affairs, food and nutrition, clothing and textiles, housing, and family well-being and financial management;" for "human nutrition, and family life; and", and in subpar. (F) "community welfare and development" for "and community development", and added subpars. (G) to (I).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(2), struck out "except as provided in subchapter VII of this chapter," before "the term" and included within term "State" American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Marianas, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

Par. (14). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(4), struck out reference to laboratory training, inserted reference to practicum experience and matters relating to formal classroom instruction, laboratory instruction, and practicum experience, and substituted provision that the teaching be conducted at colleges or universities offering baccalaureate or higher degrees for provision that the teaching be conducted at colleges and universities leading to a baccalaureate and other recognized degrees.

Pars. (15), (16). Pub. L. 97–98, §1404(5), added pars. (15) and (16).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 1307 of this title.

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Construction of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–171, title VII, §7502(b), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 463, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not affect any basis for distribution of funds by formula (in effect on the date of enactment of this Act [May 13, 2002]) to—

"(1) the Federated States of Micronesia;

"(2) the Republic of the Marshall Islands; or

"(3) the Republic of Palau."

Designation Review

Pub. L. 115–334, title VII, §7102(b), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4781, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 20, 2018], the Secretary [of Agriculture] shall establish a process to review each designated NLGCA Institution (as defined in section 1404(14)(A) of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3103(14)(A))) to ensure compliance with such section, as amended by this subsection [probably means "as amended by this section"].

"(2) Revocation.—An NLGCA Institution that the Secretary determines under subparagraph (A) to be not in compliance shall have the designation of such institution revoked."

§3104. Agriculture research; declaration of policy; duties of Secretary of Agriculture; use of existing facilities

It is declared to be the policy of the Congress to promote the efficient production and utilization of products of the soil as essential to the health and welfare of our people and to promote a sound and prosperous agriculture and rural life as indispensable to the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity. It is also the intent of Congress to assure agriculture a position in research equal to that of industry which will aid in maintaining an equitable balance between agriculture and other sections of our economy. For the attainment of these objectives, the Secretary of Agriculture is authorized and directed to conduct and to stimulate research into the laws and principles underlying the basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects, including but not limited to: Research relating to the improvement of the quality of, and the development of new and improved methods of the production, marketing, distribution, processing, and utilization of plant and animal commodities at all stages from the original producer through to the ultimate consumer; research into the problems of human nutrition and the nutritive value of agricultural commodities, with particular reference to their content of vitamins, minerals, amino and fatty acids, and all other constituents that may be found necessary for the health of the consumer and to the gains or losses in nutritive value that may take place at any stage in their production, distribution, processing, and preparation for use by the consumer; research relating to the development of present, new, and extended uses and markets for agricultural commodities and byproducts as food or in commerce, manufacture, or trade, both at home and abroad, with particular reference to those foods and fibers for which our capacity to produce exceeds or may exceed existing economic demand; research to encourage the discovery, introduction, and breeding of new and useful agricultural crops, plants, and animals, both foreign and native, particularly for those crops and plants which may be adapted to utilization in chemical and manufacturing industries; research relating to new and more profitable uses for our resources of agricultural manpower, soils, plants, animals, and equipment than those to which they are now, or may hereafter be, devoted; research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land, forest, and water resources for agricultural purposes; research relating to the design, development, and the more efficient and satisfactory use of farm buildings, farm homes, farm machinery, including the application of electricity and other forms of power; research and development relating to uses of solar energy with respect to farm buildings, farm homes, and farm machinery (including equipment used to dry and cure crops and provide irrigation); applied research to develop agricultural, forestry, and rural energy conservation and biomass energy production and use; research relating to the diversification of farm enterprises, both as to the type of commodities produced, and as to the types of operations performed, on the individual farm; research relating to any other laws and principles that may contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a permanent and effective agricultural industry including such investigations as have for their purpose the development and improvement of the rural home and rural life, and the maximum contribution by agriculture to the welfare of the consumer and the maintenance of maximum employment and national prosperity; and such other researches or experiments bearing on the agricultural industry or on rural homes of the United States as may in each case be deemd 1 advisable, having due regard to the varying conditions and needs of Puerto Rico, the respective States, and Territories. In effectuating the purposes of this section, maximum use shall be made of existing research facilities owned or controlled by the Federal Government or by State agricultural experiment stations and of the facilities of the Federal and State extension services. Research authorized under this section shall be in addition to research provided for under existing law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable). For purposes of this title,2 the term "solar energy" means energy derived from sources (other than fossil fuels) and technologies included in the Federal Non-Nuclear 3 Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended [42 U.S.C. 5901 et seq.].

(June 29, 1935, ch. 338, title I, §1, 49 Stat. 436; Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 966, title I, §101(1), 60 Stat. 1082; Pub. L. 95–113, title XIV, §1446, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 96–294, title II, §253, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 707.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in text, means title I of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Nonnuclear Energy Research and Development Act of 1974, as amended, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 93–577, Dec. 31, 1974, 88 Stat. 1878, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 74 (§5901 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 427 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act", and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

Another section 1446 of Pub. L. 95–113 is classified to section 3222a of this title.

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–294 inserted provisions relating to applied research to develop agricultural, forestry, and rural energy conservation and biomass energy production and use.

1977Pub. L. 95–113 inserted reference to research and development relating to uses of solar energy with respect to farm buildings, farm homes, and farm machinery (including equipment used to dry and cure crops and provide irrigation) and inserted definition of "solar energy".

1946—Act Aug. 14, 1946, amended section generally to provide for a greatly augmented research program in order to enable agriculture to attain a position in research comparable to that of other industries.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all officers, agencies, and employees of Department of Agriculture transferred, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 9310. Transferring Nutrition Functions of Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services to Department of Agriculture

Ex. Ord. No. 9310, Mar. 6, 1943, 8 F.R. 2913, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by Title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941 [former sections 601 to 605 of the former Appendix to Title 50], as President of the United States, and in order to enable the Secretary of Agriculture more effectively to carry out his responsibilities with respect to the Nation's food program, it is hereby ordered:

1. The functions, powers, and duties, with respect to nutrition, (a) of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services in the Office for Emergency Management of the Executive Office of the President (including all functions, powers, and duties of the Nutrition Division of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services), and (b) of the Director of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services, are transferred to the Department of Agriculture and shall be administered under the supervision and direction of the Secretary of Agriculture through such agency or agencies in the Department as the Secretary shall designate.

2. The personnel, property, and records used primarily in the administration of the functions, powers, and duties transferred by this Order are transferred to the Department of Agriculture. So much of the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, and other funds available for the use of the Office of Defense Health and Welfare Services in discharging the functions, powers, and duties transferred by this Order, as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine, shall be transferred to the Department of Agriculture for use in connection with the exercise of the functions, powers, and duties so transferred. In determining the amounts to be transferred hereunder, allowance shall be made for the liquidation of obligations previously incurred against such appropriations, allocations, or other funds.

Franklin D. Roosevelt.      

1 So in original. Probably should be "deemed".

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be "Nonnuclear".

§3105. Agricultural research; authorization of additional appropriations; administrative expenses; availability of special research fund

(a) In order to carry out further research on utilization and associated problems in connection with the development and application of present, new, and extended uses of agricultural commodities and products thereof authorized by section 3104 of this title, and to disseminate information relative thereto, and in addition to all other appropriations authorized by this title,1 there is authorized to be appropriated the following sums:

(1) $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) An additional $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(6) In addition to the foregoing, such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1952, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.


The Secretary of Agriculture, in accordance with such regulations as he deems necessary, and when in his judgment the work to be performed will be carried out more effectively, more rapidly, or at less cost than if performed by the Department of Agriculture, may enter into contracts with such public or private organizations or individuals as he may find qualified to carry on work under this section without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, and with respect to such contracts he may make advance progress or other payments without regard to the provisions of section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31. Contracts under this section may be made for work to continue not more than four years from the date of any such contract. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 5 of the Act of June 20, 1874, as amended (31 U.S.C. 713),1 any unexpended balances of appropriations properly obligated by contracting with an organization as provided in this subsection may remain upon the books of the Treasury for not more than five fiscal years before being carried to the surplus fund and covered into the Treasury. Research authorized under this subsection shall be conducted so far as practicable at laboratories of the Department of Agriculture. Projects conducted under contract with public and private agencies shall be supplemental to and coordinated with research of these laboratories. Any contracts made pursuant to this authority shall contain requirements making the results of research and investigations available to the public through dedication, assignment to the Government, or such other means as the Secretary shall determine.

(b) In order to carry out further the purposes of section 3104 of this title, other than research on utilization of agricultural commodities and the products thereof, and in addition to all other appropriations authorized by this title,1 there is authorized to be appropriated for cooperative research with the State agricultural experiment stations and such other appropriate agencies as may be mutually agreeable to the Department of Agriculture and the experiment stations concerned, the following sums:

(1) $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1947, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(2) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1948, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(3) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1949, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(4) An additional $1,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1950, and each subsequent fiscal year.

(5) In addition to the foregoing such additional funds beginning with the fiscal year ending June 30, 1951, and thereafter, as the Congress may deem necessary.


(c) The Secretary may incur necessary administrative expenses not to exceed 3 per centum of the amount appropriated in any fiscal year in carrying out this section, including the specific objects of expense enumerated in section 427b 1 of this title.

(d) The "Special research fund, Department of Agriculture," provided by section 427c 1 of this title, shall continue to be available solely for research into laws and principles underlying basic problems of agriculture in its broadest aspects; research relating to the improvement of the quality of, and the development of, new and improved methods of production of, distribution of, and new and extended uses and markets for, agricultural commodities and byproducts and manufactures thereof; and research relating to the conservation, development, and use of land and water resources for agricultural purposes. Such research shall be in addition to research provided for under other law (but both activities shall be coordinated so far as practicable) and shall be conducted by such agencies of the Department of Agriculture as the Secretary of Agriculture may designate or establish.

(e) Appropriations for research work in the Department of Agriculture shall be available for accomplishing such purposes by contract through the means provided in subsection (a) of this section.

(June 29, 1935, ch. 338, title I, §10, as added Aug. 14, 1946, ch. 966, title I, §101(2), 60 Stat. 1085; amended July 28, 1954, ch. 591, 68 Stat. 574.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), means title I of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, 49 Stat. 436. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1935 Amendment note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Section 5 of the Act of June 20, 1874, as amended (31 U.S.C. 713), referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by act July 6, 1949, ch. 299, §3, 63 Stat. 407.

Section 427b of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was repealed by act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 790, §2, 69 Stat. 674.

Section 427c of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was repealed by act Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 790, §2, 69 Stat. 674.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 427i of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of act June 29, 1935, ch. 338, popularly known as the "Agricultural Research Act" and also as the "Bankhead-Jones Act", and not as part of the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

In subsec. (a), "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709, Revised Statutes" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

In subsec. (a), "section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31" substituted for "section 3648, Revised Statutes [31 U.S.C. 529]" on authority of Pub. L. 97–258, §4(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1067, the first section of which enacted Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

1954—Subsec. (e). Act July 23, 1954, added subsec. (e).

Transfer of Functions

Functions of all officers, agencies, and employees of Department of Agriculture transferred, with certain exceptions, to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.