[USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 9, SUBCHAPTER III: STOCKYARDS AND STOCKYARD DEALERS
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7 USC CHAPTER 9, SUBCHAPTER III: STOCKYARDS AND STOCKYARD DEALERS
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 9—PACKERS AND STOCKYARDS

SUBCHAPTER III—STOCKYARDS AND STOCKYARD DEALERS

§201. "Stockyard owner"; "stockyard services"; "market agency"; "dealer"; defined

In this chapter:

(a) The term "stockyard owner" means any person engaged in the business of conducting or operating a stockyard.

(b) The term "stockyard services" means services or facilities furnished at a stockyard in connection with the receiving, buying, or selling on a commission basis or otherwise, marketing, feeding, watering, holding, delivery, shipment, weighing, or handling in commerce, of livestock.

(c) The term "market agency" means any person engaged in the business of (1) buying or selling in commerce livestock on a commission basis or (2) furnishing stockyard services. Beginning on October 7, 2016, such term includes any person who engages in the business of buying or selling livestock, on a commission or other fee basis, through the use of online, video, or other electronic methods when handling or providing the means to handle receivables or proceeds from such buying or selling, so long as such person's annual average of online, video, or electronic sales of livestock, on a commission or other fee basis, exceeds $250,000.

(d) The term "dealer" means any person, not a market agency, engaged in the business of buying or selling in commerce livestock, either on his own account or as the employee or agent of the vendor or purchaser.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §301, 42 Stat. 163; Pub. L. 85–909, §2(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1750; Pub. L. 94–410, §3(c), Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1249; Pub. L. 114–237, §2, Oct. 7, 2016, 130 Stat. 970.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–237, §2(b)(1), substituted "In this chapter:" for "When used in this chapter—" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–237, §2(b)(2), substituted period for semicolon at end.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–237, §2(b)(3)(B), substituted period for semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 114–237, §2(b)(3)(A), which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by substituting "weighing" for "weighting", could not be executed because the word "weighing" already appeared in text.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–237, §2(a), substituted period for "; and" after "stockyard services" and inserted at end "Beginning on October 7, 2016, such term includes any person who engages in the business of buying or selling livestock, on a commission or other fee basis, through the use of online, video, or other electronic methods when handling or providing the means to handle receivables or proceeds from such buying or selling, so long as such person's annual average of online, video, or electronic sales of livestock, on a commission or other fee basis, exceeds $250,000."

1976—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 94–410 substituted "livestock" for "live stock".

1958—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 85–909 struck out "at a stockyard" after "livestock".

§202. "Stockyard" defined; determination by Secretary as to particular yard

(a) When used in this subchapter the term "stockyard" means any place, establishment, or facility commonly known as stockyards, conducted, operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers, consisting of pens, or other inclosures, and their appurtenances, in which live cattle, sheep, swine, horses, mules, or goats are received, held, or kept for sale or shipment in commerce.

(b) The Secretary shall from time to time ascertain, after such inquiry as he deems necessary, the stockyards which come within the foregoing definition, and shall give notice thereof to the stockyard owners concerned, and give public notice thereof by posting copies of such notice in the stockyard, and in such other manner as he may determine. After the giving of such notice to the stockyard owner and to the public, the stockyard shall remain subject to the provisions of this subchapter until like notice is given by the Secretary that such stockyard no longer comes within the foregoing definition.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §302, 42 Stat. 163; Pub. L. 85–909, §2(2), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1750; Pub. L. 90–446, §1(a), July 31, 1968, 82 Stat. 474.)

Amendments

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–446 substituted "operated, or managed for profit or nonprofit as a public market for livestock producers, feeders, market agencies, and buyers" for "or operated for compensation or profit as a public market".

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–909 struck out "Said sections shall not apply to a stockyard of which the area normally available for handling livestock, exclusive of runs, alleys, or passage ways, is less than twenty thousand square feet."

Transportation of Livestock

Pub. L. 85–909, §2(2), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1750, provided in part: "That nothing herein [this section] shall be deemed a definition of the term 'public stockyards' as used in section 15(5) of the Interstate Commerce Act [former 49 U.S.C. 15(5)]".

§203. Activity as stockyard dealer or market agency; benefits to business and welfare of stockyard; registration; penalty for failure to register

After the expiration of thirty days after the Secretary has given public notice that any stockyard is within the definition of section 202 of this title, by posting copies of such notice in the stockyard, no person shall carry on the business of a market agency or dealer at such stockyard unless (1) the stockyard owner has determined that his services will be beneficial to the business and welfare of said stockyard, its patrons, and customers, which determination shall be made on a basis which is not unreasonable or unjustly discriminatory, and has given written authorization to such person, and (2) he has registered with the Secretary, under such rules and regulations as the Secretary may prescribe, his name and address, the character of business in which he is engaged, and the kinds of stockyards services, if any, which he furnishes at such stockyard. Every other person operating as a market agency or dealer as defined in section 201 of this title may be required to register in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe. Whoever violates the provisions of this section shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $500 for each such offense and not more than $25 for each day it continues, which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil action brought by the United States.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §303, 42 Stat. 163; Pub. L. 85–909, §2(3), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1750; Pub. L. 90–446, §1(b), July 31, 1968, 82 Stat. 474.)

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–446 designated existing provisions as cl. (2) and added cl. (1).

1958Pub. L. 85–909 inserted "Every other person operating as a market agency or dealer as defined in section 201 of this title may be required to register in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe."

§204. Bond and suspension of registrants

On and after July 12, 1943, the Secretary may require reasonable bonds from every market agency (as defined in this subchapter), every packer (as defined in subchapter II of this chapter) in connection with its livestock purchasing operations (except that those packers whose average annual purchases do not exceed $500,000 will be exempt from the provisions of this paragraph), and every other person operating as a dealer (as defined in this subchapter) under such rules and regulations as he may prescribe, to secure the performance of their obligations, and whenever, after due notice and hearing, the Secretary finds any registrant is insolvent or has violated any provisions of this chapter he may issue an order suspending such registrant for a reasonable specified period. Such order of suspension shall take effect within not less than five days, unless suspended or modified or set aside by the Secretary or a court of competent jurisdiction. If the Secretary finds any packer is insolvent, he may after notice and hearing issue an order under the provisions of section 193 of this title requiring such packer to cease and desist from purchasing livestock while insolvent, or while insolvent purchasing livestock except under such conditions as the Secretary may prescribe to effectuate the purposes of this chapter.

(July 12, 1943, ch. 215, 57 Stat. 422; Pub. L. 94–410, §§1, 4, Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1249.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1944, act July 12, 1943, and not as part of the Packers and Stockyards Act, 1921, which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–410 inserted provisions exempting market agencies and packers whose average annual purchases do not exceed $500,000 from bonding requirement and authorizing Secretary, after notice and hearing, to issue cease and desist orders to insolvent packers prohibiting the purchase of livestock except under conditions prescribed by Secretary, respectively.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

July 22, 1942, ch. 516, 56 Stat. 689.

July 1, 1941, ch. 267, 55 Stat. 432.

June 25, 1940, ch. 421, 54 Stat. 557.

June 30, 1939, ch. 253, title I, 53 Stat. 970.

June 16, 1938, ch. 464, title I, 52 Stat. 721.

June 29, 1937, ch. 404, 50 Stat. 406.

June 4, 1936, ch. 489, 49 Stat. 1432.

May 17, 1935, ch. 131, title I, 49 Stat. 257.

Mar. 26, 1934, ch. 89, 48 Stat. 477.

Mar. 3, 1933, ch. 203, 47 Stat. 1441.

July 7, 1932, ch. 443, 47 Stat. 620.

Feb. 23, 1931, ch. 278, 46 Stat. 1252.

May 27, 1930, ch. 341, 46 Stat. 402.

Feb. 16, 1929, ch. 227, 45 Stat. 1198.

May 16, 1928, ch. 572, 45 Stat. 547.

Jan. 18, 1927, ch. 39, 44 Stat. 1002.

May 11, 1926, ch. 286, 44 Stat. 527.

Feb. 10, 1925, ch. 200, 43 Stat. 851.

June 5, 1924, ch. 266, 43 Stat. 460.

§205. General duty as to services; revocation of registration

All stockyard services furnished pursuant to reasonable request made to a stockyard owner or market agency at such stockyard shall be reasonable and nondiscriminatory and stockyard services which are furnished shall not be refused on any basis that is unreasonable or unjustly discriminatory: Provided, That in any State where the weighing of livestock at a stockyard is conducted by a duly authorized department or agency of the State, the Secretary, upon application of such department or agency, may register it as a market agency for the weighing of livestock received in such stockyard, and upon such registration such department or agency and the members thereof shall be amenable to all the requirements of this chapter, and upon failure of such department or agency or the members thereof to comply with the orders of the Secretary under this chapter he is authorized to revoke the registration of such department or agency and to enforce such revocation as provided in section 216 of this title.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §304, 42 Stat. 164; May 5, 1926, ch. 240, 44 Stat. 397; Pub. L. 90–446, §1(c), July 31, 1968, 82 Stat. 474.)

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–446 inserted provision requiring that stockyard services which are furnished not be refused on any basis that is unreasonable or unjustly discriminatory.

1926—Act May 5, 1926, inserted proviso.

§206. Rates and charges generally; discrimination

All rates or charges made for any stockyard services furnished at a stockyard by a stockyard owner or market agency shall be just, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory, and any unjust, unreasonable, or discriminatory rate or charge is prohibited and declared to be unlawful: Provided, That rates and charges based upon percentages of the gross sales prices of livestock shall not be prohibited merely because they are based upon such percentages rather than on a per head basis.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §305, 42 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 95–409, §1(a), Oct. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 886.)

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–409 inserted proviso that rates and charges based upon percentages of gross sales of livestock shall not be prohibited merely because based on such percentages rather than on a per head basis.

§207. Schedule of rates

(a) Filing; public inspection

Within sixty days after the Secretary has given public notice that a stockyard is within the definition of section 202 of this title, by posting copies of such notice in the stockyard, the stockyard owner and every market agency at such stockyard shall file with the Secretary, and print and keep open to public inspection at the stockyard, schedules showing all rates and charges for the stockyard services furnished by such person at such stockyard. If a market agency commences business at the stockyard after the expiration of such sixty days such schedules must be filed before any stockyard services are furnished.

(b) Detail required; form

Such schedules shall plainly state all such rates and charges in such detail as the Secretary may require, and shall also state any rules or regulations which in any manner change, affect, or determine any part or the aggregate of such rates or charges, or the value of the stockyard services furnished. The Secretary may determine and prescribe the form and manner in which such schedules shall be prepared, arranged, and posted, and may from time to time make such changes in respect thereto as may be found expedient.

(c) Changes

No changes shall be made in the rates or charges so filed and published, except after ten days' notice to the Secretary and to the public filed and published as aforesaid, which shall plainly state the changes proposed to be made and the time such changes will go into effect; but the Secretary may, for good cause shown, allow changes on less than ten days' notice, or modify the requirements of this section in respect to publishing, posting, and filing of schedules, either in particular instances or by a general order applicable to special or peculiar circumstances or conditions.

(d) Rejection by Secretary

The Secretary may reject and refuse to file any schedule tendered for filing which does not provide and give lawful notice of its effective date, and any schedule so rejected by the Secretary shall be void and its use shall be unlawful.

(e) Determination of lawfulness; hearing; suspension

Whenever there is filed with the Secretary any schedule, stating a new rate or charge, or a new regulation or practice affecting any rate or charge, the Secretary may either upon complaint or upon his own initiative without complaint, at once, and if he so orders without answer or other formal pleading by the person filing such schedule, but upon reasonable notice, enter upon a hearing concerning the lawfulness of such rate, charge, regulation, or practice, and pending such hearing and decision thereon the Secretary, upon filing with such schedule and delivering to the person filing it a statement in writing of his reasons for such suspension, may suspend the operation of such schedule and defer the use of such rate, charge, regulation, or practice, but not for a longer period than thirty days beyond the time when it would otherwise go into effect; and after full hearing, whether completed before or after the rate, charge, regulation, or practice goes into effect, the Secretary may make such order with reference thereto as would be proper in a proceeding initiated after it had become effective. If any such hearing cannot be concluded within the period of suspension the Secretary may extend the time of suspension for a further period not exceeding thirty days, and if the proceeding has not been concluded and an order made at the expiration of such thirty days, the proposed change of rate, charge, regulation, or practice shall go into effect at the end of such period.

(f) Suspension of operations; compliance

After the expiration of the sixty days referred to in subsection (a) 1 no person shall carry on the business of a stockyard owner or market agency unless the rates and charges for the stockyard services furnished at the stockyard have been filed and published in accordance with this section and the orders of the Secretary made thereunder; nor charge, demand, or collect a greater or less or different compensation for such services than the rates and charges specified in the schedules filed and in effect at the time; nor refund or remit in any manner any portion of the rates or charges so specified (but this shall not prohibit a cooperative association of producers from bona fide returning to its members, on a patronage basis, its excess earnings on their livestock, subject to such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe); nor extend to any person at such stockyard any stockyard services except such as are specified in such schedules.

(g) Penalty

Whoever fails to comply with the provisions of this section or of any regulation or order of the Secretary made thereunder shall be liable to a penalty of not more than $500 for each such offense, and not more than $25 for each day it continues, which shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil action brought by the United States.

(h) Intentional violations; penalty

Whoever willfully fails to comply with the provisions of this section or of any regulation or order of the Secretary made thereunder shall on conviction be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §306, 42 Stat. 164; Pub. L. 94–410, §3(c), Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1249.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–410 substituted "livestock" for "live stock" after "earnings on their".

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§208. Unreasonable or discriminatory practices generally; rights of stockyard owner of management and regulation

(a) It shall be the duty of every stockyard owner and market agency to establish, observe, and enforce just, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory regulations and practices in respect to the furnishing of stockyard services, and every unjust, unreasonable, or discriminatory regulation or practice is prohibited and declared to be unlawful.

(b) It shall be the responsibility and right of every stockyard owner to manage and regulate his stockyard in a just, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory manner, to prescribe rules and regulations and to require those persons engaging in or attempting to engage in the purchase, sale, or solicitation of livestock at such stockyard to conduct their operations in a manner which will foster, preserve, or insure an efficient, competitive public market. Such rules and regulations shall not prevent a registered market agency or dealer from rendering service on other markets or in occasional and incidental off-market transactions.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §307, 42 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 90–446, §1(d), July 31, 1968, 82 Stat. 475.)

Amendments

1968Pub. L. 90–446 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

§209. Liability to individuals for violations; enforcement generally

(a) If any person subject to this chapter violates any of the provisions of this chapter, or of any order of the Secretary under this chapter, relating to the purchase, sale, or handling of livestock, the purchase or sale of poultry, or relating to any poultry growing arrangement or swine production contract, he shall be liable to the person or persons injured thereby for the full amount of damages sustained in consequence of such violation.

(b) Such liability may be enforced either (1) by complaint to the Secretary as provided in section 210 of this title, or (2) by suit in any district court of the United States of competent jurisdiction; but this section shall not in any way abridge or alter the remedies now existing at common law or by statute, but the provisions of this chapter are in addition to such remedies.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §308, 42 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 94–410, §6, Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1250; Pub. L. 100–173, §5, Nov. 23, 1987, 101 Stat. 918; Pub. L. 107–171, title X, §10502(b)(2)(B), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 510.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–171 inserted "or swine production contract" after "poultry growing arrangement".

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–173 inserted "the purchase or sale of poultry, or relating to any poultry growing arrangement," after "livestock,".

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–410 struck out references to violations of specific sections and added packers to categories of regulated persons against whom private action could be brought for violation of chapter.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–173 effective 90 days after Nov. 23, 1987, see section 12 of Pub. L. 100–173, set out as a note under section 182 of this title.

§210. Proceedings before Secretary for violations

(a) Complaint; response; satisfaction or investigation

Any person complaining of anything done or omitted to be done by any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "defendant") in violation of the provisions of this subchapter, or of an order of the Secretary made under this subchapter, may, at any time within ninety days after the cause of action accrues, apply to the Secretary by petition which shall briefly state the facts, whereupon the complaint thus made shall be forwarded by the Secretary to the defendant, who shall be called upon to satisfy the complaint, or to answer it in writing, within a reasonable time to be specified by the Secretary. If the defendant within the time specified makes reparation for the injury alleged to be done he shall be relieved of liability to the complainant only for the particular violation thus complained of. If the defendant does not satisfy the complaint within the time specified, or there appears to be any reasonable ground for investigating the complaint, it shall be the duty of the Secretary to investigate the matters complained of in such manner and by such means as he deems proper.

(b) Complaints forwarded by agencies of a State or Territory

The Secretary, at the request of the livestock commissioner, board of agriculture, or other agency of a State or Territory, having jurisdiction over stockyards in such State or Territory, shall investigate any complaint forwarded by such agency in like manner and with the same authority and powers as in the case of a complaint made under subsection (a).

(c) Inquiries instituted by Secretary

The Secretary may at any time institute an inquiry on his own motion, in any case and as to any matter or thing concerning which a complaint is authorized to be made to or before the Secretary, by any provision of this subchapter, or concerning which any question may arise under any of the provisions of this subchapter, or relating to the enforcement of any of the provisions of this subchapter. The Secretary shall have the same power and authority to proceed with any inquiry instituted upon his own motion as though he had been appealed to by petition, including the power to make and enforce any order or orders in the case or relating to the matter or thing concerning which the inquiry is had, except orders for the payment of money.

(d) Damage to complainant not required

No complaint shall at any time be dismissed because of the absence of direct damage to the complainant.

(e) Award and payment of damages

If after hearing on a complaint the Secretary determines that the complainant is entitled to an award of damages, the Secretary shall make an order directing the defendant to pay to the complainant the sum to which he is entitled on or before a day named.

(f) Enforcement of orders

If the defendant does not comply with an order for the payment of money within the time limit in such order, the complainant, or any person for whose benefit such order was made, may within one year of the date of the order file in the district court of the United States for the district in which he resides or in which is located the principal place of business of the defendant or in any State court having general jurisdiction of the parties, a petition setting forth briefly the causes for which he claims damages, and the order of the Secretary in the premises. Such suit in the district court shall proceed in all respects like other civil suits for damages except that the findings and orders of the Secretary shall be prima facie evidence of the facts therein stated, and the petitioner shall not be liable for costs in the district court nor for costs at any subsequent stage of the proceedings unless they accrue upon his appeal. If the petitioner finally prevails, he shall be allowed a reasonable attorney's fee to be taxed and collected as a part of the costs of the suit.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §309, 42 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 94–410, §3(c), Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1249.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–410 substituted "livestock" for "live-stock" after "request of the".

§211. Order of Secretary as to charges or practices; prescribing rates and practices generally

Whenever after full hearing upon a complaint made as provided in section 210 of this title, or after full hearing under an order for investigation and hearing made by the Secretary on his own initiative, either in extension of any pending complaint or without any complaint whatever, the Secretary is of the opinion that any rate, charge, regulation, or practice of a stockyard owner or market agency, for or in connection with the furnishing of stockyard services, is or will be violative of section 205, 206, or 208 of this title, the Secretary—

(a) May in accordance with the standard set forth in section 206 of this title determine and prescribe what will be the rate or charge, or rates or charges, to be thereafter in such case observed as the maximum or minimum or both to be charged, and what regulation or practice is or will be just, reasonable, and nondiscriminatory to be thereafter followed: Provided, That the Secretary shall prescribe the rate or charge, or rates or charges, on a percentage or per head basis at the election of the stockyard owner or market agency, or on any other basis elected by the stockyard owner or market agency unless the Secretary finds such other basis to be violative of section 206 of this title; and

(b) May make an order that such owner or operator (1) shall cease and desist from such violation to the extent to which the Secretary finds that it does or will exist; (2) shall not thereafter publish, demand, or collect any rate or charge for the furnishing of stockyard services other than the rate or charge or rates or charges so prescribed; and (3) shall conform to and observe the regulation or practice so prescribed.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §310, 42 Stat. 166; Aug. 10, 1939, ch. 663, 53 Stat. 1351; Pub. L. 95–409, §1(b), Oct. 2, 1978, 92 Stat. 886.)

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–409, §1(b)(1), in provision preceding subsec. (a), substituted "violative of section 205, 206 or 208 of this title" for "unjust, unreasonable, or discriminatory".

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–409, §1(b)(2), substituted "May in accordance with the standard set forth in section 206 of this title determine and prescribe what will be the rate" for "May determine and prescribe what will be the just and reasonable rate", and "as the maximum or minimum or both" for "as both the maximum and minimum", and inserted proviso relating to prescription by the Secretary of rates or charges on a percentage or per head basis at the election of the owner or agency or any other basis unless violative of section 206 of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–409, §1(b)(3), substituted "other than the rate or charge or rates or charges" for "more or less than the rate or charge".

1939—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 10, 1939, substituted "as both" for "or the".

Subsec. (b)(2). Act Aug. 10, 1939, substituted "more or less than the rate or charge so prescribed" for "other than the rate or charge so prescribed, or in excess of the maximum or less than the minimum so prescribed, as the case may be".

§212. Prescribing rates and practices to prevent discrimination between intrastate and interstate commerce

Whenever in any investigation under the provisions of this subchapter, or in any investigation instituted by petition of the stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer concerned, which petition is authorized to be filed, the Secretary after full hearing finds that any rate, charge, regulation, or practice of any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer, for or in connection with the buying or selling on a commission basis or otherwise, receiving, marketing, feeding, holding, delivery, shipment, weighing, or handling, not in commerce, of livestock, causes any undue or unreasonable advantage, prejudice, or preference as between persons or localities in intrastate commerce in livestock on the one hand and interstate or foreign commerce in livestock on the other hand, or any undue, unjust, or unreasonable discrimination against interstate or foreign commerce in livestock, which is hereby forbidden and declared to be unlawful, the Secretary shall prescribe the rate, charge, regulation, or practice thereafter to be observed, in such manner as, in his judgment, will remove such advantage, preference, or discrimination. Such rates, charges, regulations, or practices shall be observed while in effect by the stockyard owners, market agencies, or dealers parties to such proceeding affected thereby, the law of any State or the decision or order of any State authority to the contrary notwithstanding.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §311, 42 Stat. 167; Pub. L. 85–909, §2(4), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1750; Pub. L. 94–410, §3(c), Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1249.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–410 substituted "livestock" for "live stock" wherever appearing.

1958Pub. L. 85–909 substituted "stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer" for "stockyard owner or market agency" wherever occurring, and "stockyard owners, market agencies, or dealers" for "stockyard owners or market agencies".

§213. Prevention of unfair, discriminatory, or deceptive practices

(a) It shall be unlawful for any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer to engage in or use any unfair, unjustly discriminatory, or deceptive practice or device in connection with determining whether persons should be authorized to operate at the stockyards, or with the receiving, marketing, buying, or selling on a commission basis or otherwise, feeding, watering, holding, delivery, shipment, weighing, or handling of livestock.

(b) Whenever complaint is made to the Secretary by any person, or whenever the Secretary has reason to believe, that any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer is violating the provisions of subsection (a), the Secretary after notice and full hearing may make an order that he shall cease and desist from continuing such violation to the extent that the Secretary finds that it does or will exist. The Secretary may also assess a civil penalty of not more than $10,000 for each such violation. In determining the amount of the civil penalty to be assessed under this section, the Secretary shall consider the gravity of the offense, the size of the business involved, and the effect of the penalty on the person's ability to continue in business. If, after the lapse of the period allowed for appeal or after the affirmance of such penalty, the person against whom the civil penalty is assessed fails to pay such penalty, the Secretary may refer the matter to the Attorney General who may recover such penalty by an action in the appropriate district court of the United States.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §312, 42 Stat. 167; Pub. L. 85–909, §2(5), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1750; Pub. L. 90–446, §1(e), July 31, 1968, 82 Stat. 475; Pub. L. 94–410, §3, Sept. 13, 1976, 90 Stat. 1249.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–410, §3(a), (c), struck out "in commerce" after "or handling" and substituted "livestock" for "live stock".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–410, §3(b), inserted provisions dealing with authority of Secretary to assess a civil penalty for violations and, upon failure to pay, procedure for recovery of such penalty.

1968—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–446 inserted "determining whether persons should be authorized to operate at stockyards, or with" after "in connection with".

1958—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–909 struck out "at a stockyard" after "in commerce".

§214. Effective date of orders

Except as otherwise provided in this chapter all orders of the Secretary under this subchapter, other than orders for the payment of money, shall take effect within such reasonable time, not less than five days, as is prescribed in the order, and shall continue in force until his further order, or for a specified period of time, according as is prescribed in the order, unless such order is suspended or modified or set aside by the Secretary or is suspended or set aside by a court of competent jurisdiction.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §313, 42 Stat. 167.)

§215. Failure to obey orders; punishment

(a) Any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer who knowingly fails to obey any order made under the provisions of sections 211, 212, or 213 of this title shall forfeit to the United States the sum of $500 for each offense. Each distinct violation shall be a separate offense, and in case of a continuing violation each day shall be deemed a separate offense. Such forfeiture shall be recoverable in a civil suit in the name of the United States.

(b) It shall be the duty of the various United States attorneys, under the direction of the Attorney General, to prosecute for the recovery of forfeitures. The costs and expense of such prosecution shall be paid out of the appropriation for the expenses of the courts of the United States.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §314, 42 Stat. 167; June 25, 1948, ch. 646, §1, 62 Stat. 909.)

Change of Name

Act June 25, 1948, eff. Sept. 1, 1948, substituted "United States attorneys" for "district attorneys" in subsec. (a). See section 541 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, and Historical and Revision Notes thereunder.

§216. Proceedings to enforce orders; injunction

If any stockyard owner, market agency, or dealer fails to obey any order of the Secretary other than for the payment of money while the same is in effect, the Secretary, or any party injured thereby, or the United States by its Attorney General, may apply to the district court for the district in which such person has his principal place of business for the enforcement of such order. If after hearing the court determines that the order was lawfully made and duly served and that such person is in disobedience of the same, the court shall enforce obedience to such order by a writ of injunction or other proper process, mandatory or otherwise, to restrain such person, his officers, agents, or representatives from further disobedience of such order or to enjoin upon him or them obedience to the same.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §315, 42 Stat. 167.)

Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

Injunctions, see rule 65, Title 28, Appendix, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§217. Proceedings for suspension of orders

For the purposes of this subchapter, the provisions of all laws relating to the suspending or restraining the enforcement, operation, or execution of, or the setting aside in whole or in part the orders of the Interstate Commerce Commission, are made applicable to the jurisdiction, powers, and duties of the Secretary in enforcing the provisions of this subchapter, and to any person subject to the provisions of this subchapter.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §316, 42 Stat. 168.)

Abolition of Interstate Commerce Commission and Transfer of Functions

Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 1302 of Title 49, Transportation, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of Title 49. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of Title 49.

§217a. Fees for inspection of brands or marks

(a) Authorization by Secretary; registration as market agency

The Secretary may, upon written application made to him, and if he deems it necessary, authorize the charging and collection, at any stockyard subject to the provisions of this chapter, by any department or agency of any State in which branding or marking or both branding and marking livestock as a means of establishing ownership prevails by custom or statute, or by a duly organized livestock association of any such State, of a reasonable and nondiscriminatory fee for the inspection of brands, marks, and other identifying characteristics of livestock originating in or shipped from such State, for the purpose of determining the ownership of such livestock. No charge shall be made under any such authorization until the authorized department, agency, or association has registered as a market agency. No more than one such authorization shall be issued with respect to such inspection of livestock originating in or shipped from any one State. If more than one such application is filed with respect to such inspection of livestock originating in or shipped from any one State, the Secretary shall issue such authorization to the applicant deemed by him best qualified to perform the proposed service, on the basis of (1) experience, (2) financial responsibility, (3) extent and efficiency of organization, (4) possession of necessary records, and (5) any other factor relating to the ability of the applicant to perform the proposed service. The Secretary may receive and consider the recommendations of the commissioner, secretary, or director of agriculture, or other appropriate officer or agency of a State as to the qualifications of any applicant in such State. The decision of the Secretary as to the applicant best qualified shall be final.

(b) Applicability of section

The provisions of this subchapter, relating to the filing, publication, approval, modification, and suspension of any rate or charge for any stockyard service shall apply with respect to charges authorized to be made under this section.

(c) Collection and payment of charges

Charges authorized to be made under this section shall be collected by the market agency or other person receiving and disbursing the funds received from the sale of livestock with respect to the inspection of which such charge is made, and paid by it to the department, agency, or association performing such service.

(d) Revocation of authorization or registration

The Secretary may, if he deems it to be in the public interest, suspend, and after hearing, revoke any authorization and registration issued under the provisions of this section or any similar authorization and registration issued under any other provision of law. The order of the Secretary suspending or revoking any such authorization and registration shall not be subject to review.

(Aug. 15, 1921, ch. 64, title III, §317, as added June 19, 1942, ch. 421, 56 Stat. 372.)

Prior Provisions

Former provisions relating to fees for inspection of brands appearing upon livestock were contained in section 231 of this title.

Administrative Orders Review Act

Court of appeals exclusive jurisdiction respecting final orders of Secretary of Agriculture under this chapter, except orders issued under section 210(e) of this title and this section, see section 2342 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.