[USC02] 8 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER III, Part I: Nationality at Birth and Collective Naturalization
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8 USC CHAPTER 12, SUBCHAPTER III, Part I: Nationality at Birth and Collective Naturalization
From Title 8—ALIENS AND NATIONALITYCHAPTER 12—IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITYSUBCHAPTER III—NATIONALITY AND NATURALIZATION

Part I—Nationality at Birth and Collective Naturalization

§1401. Nationals and citizens of United States at birth

The following shall be nationals and citizens of the United States at birth:

(a) a person born in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof;

(b) a person born in the United States to a member of an Indian, Eskimo, Aleutian, or other aboriginal tribe: Provided, That the granting of citizenship under this subsection shall not in any manner impair or otherwise affect the right of such person to tribal or other property;

(c) a person born outside of the United States and its outlying possessions of parents both of whom are citizens of the United States and one of whom has had a residence in the United States or one of its outlying possessions, prior to the birth of such person;

(d) a person born outside of the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is a citizen of the United States who has been physically present in the United States or one of its outlying possessions for a continuous period of one year prior to the birth of such person, and the other of whom is a national, but not a citizen of the United States;

(e) a person born in an outlying possession of the United States of parents one of whom is a citizen of the United States who has been physically present in the United States or one of its outlying possessions for a continuous period of one year at any time prior to the birth of such person;

(f) a person of unknown parentage found in the United States while under the age of five years, until shown, prior to his attaining the age of twenty-one years, not to have been born in the United States;

(g) a person born outside the geographical limits of the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is an alien, and the other a citizen of the United States who, prior to the birth of such person, was physically present in the United States or its outlying possessions for a period or periods totaling not less than five years, at least two of which were after attaining the age of fourteen years: Provided, That any periods of honorable service in the Armed Forces of the United States, or periods of employment with the United States Government or with an international organization as that term is defined in section 288 of title 22 by such citizen parent, or any periods during which such citizen parent is physically present abroad as the dependent unmarried son or daughter and a member of the household of a person (A) honorably serving with the Armed Forces of the United States, or (B) employed by the United States Government or an international organization as defined in section 288 of title 22, may be included in order to satisfy the physical-presence requirement of this paragraph. This proviso shall be applicable to persons born on or after December 24, 1952, to the same extent as if it had become effective in its present form on that date; and

(h) a person born before noon (Eastern Standard Time) May 24, 1934, outside the limits and jurisdiction of the United States of an alien father and a mother who is a citizen of the United States who, prior to the birth of such person, had resided in the United States.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §301, 66 Stat. 235; Pub. L. 89–770, Nov. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 1322; Pub. L. 92–584, §§1, 3, Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1289; Pub. L. 95–432, §§1, 3, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1046; Pub. L. 99–653, §12, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657; Pub. L. 103–416, title I, §101(a), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–416 added subsec. (h).

1986—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–653 substituted "five years, at least two" for "ten years, at least five".

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–432, §3, struck out "(a)" before "The following" and redesignated pars. (1) to (7) as (a) to (g), respectively.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–432, §1, struck out subsec. (b) which provided that any person who was a national or citizen of the United States under subsec. (a)(7) lose his nationality or citizenship unless he be continuously physically present in the United States for a period of not less than two years between the ages of 14 and 28 or that the alien parent be naturalized while the child was under 18 years of age and the child began permanent residence in the United States while under 18 years of age and that absence from the United States of less than 60 days not break the continuity of presence.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–432, §1, struck out subsec. (c) which provided that former subsec. (b) apply to persons born abroad subsequent to May 24, 1934, except that this not be construed to alter the citizenship of any person born abroad subsequent to May 24, 1934 who, prior to the effective date of this chapter, had taken up residence in the United States before attaining 16 years of age, and thereafter, whether before or after the effective date of this chapter, complied with the residence requirements of section 201(g) and (h) of the Nationality Act of 1940.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–432, §1, struck out subsec. (d) which provided that nothing in former subsec. (b) be construed to alter the citizenship of any person who came into the United States prior to Oct. 27, 1972, and who, whether before or after Oct. 27, 1972, immediately following such coming complied with the physical presence requirements for retention of citizenship specified in former subsec. (b), prior to amendment of former subsec. (b) by Pub. L. 92–584.

1972—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–584, §1, substituted provisions that nationals and citizens of the United States under subsec. (a)(7), lose such status unless they are present continuously in the United States for two years between the ages of fourteen and twenty eight years, or the alien parent is naturalized while the child is under the age of eighteen years and the child begins to reside permanently in the United States while under the age of eighteen years, and that absence from the United States of less than sixty days will not break the continuity of presence, for provisions that such status would be lost unless the nationals and citizens come to the United States prior to attaining twenty three years and be present continuously in the United States for five years, and that such presence should be between the age of fourteen and twenty eight years.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–584, §3, added subsec. (d).

1966—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 89–770 authorized periods of employment with the United States Government or with an international organization by the citizen parent, or any periods during which the citizen parent is physically present abroad as the dependent unmarried son or daughter and a member of the household of a person (A) honorably serving with the Armed Forces of the United States, or (B) employed by the United States Government or an international organization, to be included in order to satisfy the physical presence requirement, and permitted the proviso to be applicable to persons born on or after December 24, 1952.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–653, §23(d), as added by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(r), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619, provided that: "The amendment made by section 12 [amending this section] shall apply to persons born on or after November 14, 1986."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–432, §1, Oct. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 1046, provided that the amendment made by section 1 is effective Oct. 10, 1978.

Effective Date

Chapter effective 180 days after June 27, 1952, see section 407 of act June 27, 1952, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

Waiver of Retention Requirements

Pub. L. 103–416, title I, §101(b), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306, provided that: "Any provision of law (including section 301(b) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1401(b)] (as in effect before October 10, 1978), and the provisos of section 201(g) of the Nationality Act of 1940 [former 8 U.S.C. 601(g)]) that provided for a person's loss of citizenship or nationality if the person failed to come to, or reside or be physically present in, the United States shall not apply in the case of a person claiming United States citizenship based on such person's descent from an individual described in section 301(h) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (as added by subsection (a))."

Retroactive Application of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–416, title I, §101(c), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the immigration and nationality laws of the United States shall be applied (to persons born before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 25, 1994]) as though the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section], and subsection (b) [enacting provisions set out above], had been in effect as of the date of their birth, except that the retroactive application of the amendment and that subsection shall not affect the validity of citizenship of anyone who has obtained citizenship under section 1993 of the Revised Statutes [former 8 U.S.C. 6] (as in effect before the enactment of the Act of May 24, 1934 (48 Stat. 797)).

"(2) The retroactive application of the amendment made by subsection (a), and subsection (b), shall not confer citizenship on, or affect the validity of any denaturalization, deportation, or exclusion action against, any person who is or was excludable from the United States under section 212(a)(3)(E) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1182(a)(3)(E)) (or predecessor provision) or who was excluded from, or who would not have been eligible for admission to, the United States under the Displaced Persons Act of 1948 [former 50 U.S.C. App. 1951 et seq.] or under section 14 of the Refugee Relief Act of 1953 [former 50 U.S.C. App. 1971l]."

Applicability of Transmission Requirements

Pub. L. 103–416, title I, §101(d), Oct. 25, 1994, 108 Stat. 4306, as amended by Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title VI, §671(b)(1), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–721, provided that: "This section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out above], the amendments made by this section, and any retroactive application of such amendments shall not effect the application of any provision of law relating to residence or physical presence in the United States for purposes of transmitting United States citizenship to any person whose claim is based on the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] or through whom such a claim is derived."

Admission of Alaska as State

Alaska Statehood provisions as not conferring, terminating, or restoring United States nationality, see section 21 of Pub. L. 85–508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as a note preceding former section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§1401a. Birth abroad before 1952 to service parent

Section 1401(g) of this title shall be considered to have been and to be applicable to a child born outside of the United States and its outlying possessions after January 12, 1941, and before December 24, 1952, of parents one of whom is a citizen of the United States who has served in the Armed Forces of the United States after December 31, 1946, and before December 24, 1952, and whose case does not come within the provisions of section 201(g) or (i) of the Nationality Act of 1940.

(Mar. 16, 1956, ch. 85, 70 Stat. 50; Pub. L. 97–116, §18(u)(2), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1621.)

References in Text

Section 201(g) and (i) of the Nationality Act of 1940, referred to in text, which were repealed by act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, §403(a)(42), 66 Stat. 280, eff. Dec. 24, 1952, provided as follows:

"The following shall be nationals and citizens of the United States at birth:

* * * * *

"(g) A person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is a citizen of the United States who, prior to the birth of such person, has had ten years' residence in the United States or one of its outlying possessions, at least five of which were after attaining the age of sixteen years, the other being an alien: Provided, That, in order to retain such citizenship, the child must reside in the United States or its outlying possessions for a period or periods totaling five years between the ages of thirteen and twenty-one years: Provided further, That, if the child has not taken up a residence in the United States or its outlying possessions by the time he reaches the age of sixteen years, or if he resides abroad for such a time that it becomes impossible for him to complete the five years' residence in the United States or its outlying possessions before reaching the age of twenty-one years, his American citizenship shall thereupon cease.

"The preceding provisos shall not apply to a child born abroad whose American parent is at the time of the child's birth residing abroad solely or principally in the employment of the Government of the United States or a bona fide American, educational, scientific, philanthropic, religious, commercial, or financial organization, having its principal office or place of business in the United States, or an international agency of an official character in which the United States participates, for which he receives a substantial compensation:

* * * * *

"(i) A person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is a citizen of the United States who has served or shall serve honorably in the armed forces of the United States after December 7, 1941, and before the date of the termination of hostilities in the present war as proclaimed by the President or determined by a joint resolution by the Congress and who, prior to the birth of such person, has had ten years' residence in the United States or one of its outlying possessions, at least five of which were after attaining the age of twelve years, the other being an alien: Provided, That in order to retain such citizenship, the child must reside in the United States or its outlying possessions for a period or periods totaling five years between the ages of thirteen and twenty-one years: Provided further, That, if the child has not taken up a residence in the United States or its outlying possessions by the time he reaches the age of sixteen years, or if he resides abroad for such a time that it becomes impossible for him to complete the five years' residence in the United States or its outlying possessions before reaching the age of twenty-one years, his American citizenship shall thereupon cease."

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Immigration and Nationality Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1981Pub. L. 97–116 substituted "Section 1401(g)" for "Section 1401(a)(7)".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–116 effective Dec. 29, 1981, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.

§1401b. Repealed. Pub. L. 92–584, §2, Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1289

Section, Pub. L. 85–316, §16, Sept. 11, 1957, 71 Stat. 644, provided that absence from the United States of less than twelve months would not break the continuity of presence in the administration of section 1401(b) of this title. See section 1401(b) of this title.

§1402. Persons born in Puerto Rico on or after April 11, 1899

All persons born in Puerto Rico on or after April 11, 1899, and prior to January 13, 1941, subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, residing on January 13, 1941, in Puerto Rico or other territory over which the United States exercises rights of sovereignty and not citizens of the United States under any other Act, are declared to be citizens of the United States as of January 13, 1941. All persons born in Puerto Rico on or after January 13, 1941, and subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, are citizens of the United States at birth.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §302, 66 Stat. 236.)

§1403. Persons born in the Canal Zone or Republic of Panama on or after February 26, 1904

(a) Any person born in the Canal Zone on or after February 26, 1904, and whether before or after the effective date of this chapter, whose father or mother or both at the time of the birth of such person was or is a citizen of the United States, is declared to be a citizen of the United States.

(b) Any person born in the Republic of Panama on or after February 26, 1904, and whether before or after the effective date of this chapter, whose father or mother or both at the time of the birth of such person was or is a citizen of the United States employed by the Government of the United States or by the Panama Railroad Company, or its successor in title, is declared to be a citizen of the United States.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §303, 66 Stat. 236.)

References in Text

For definition of Canal Zone, referred to in text, see section 3602(b) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

The effective date of this chapter, referred to in text, is the 180th day immediately following June 27, 1952. See section 407 of act June 27, 1952, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1101 of this title.

Change of Name

Panama Railroad Company redesignated Panama Canal Company by act Sept. 26, 1950, ch. 1049, §2(a)(2), 64 Stat. 1038. References to Panama Canal Company in laws of the United States are deemed to refer to Panama Canal Commission pursuant to section 3602(b)(5) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§1404. Persons born in Alaska on or after March 30, 1867

A person born in Alaska on or after March 30, 1867, except a noncitizen Indian, is a citizen of the United States at birth. A noncitizen Indian born in Alaska on or after March 30, 1867, and prior to June 2, 1924, is declared to be a citizen of the United States as of June 2, 1924. An Indian born in Alaska on or after June 2, 1924, is a citizen of the United States at birth.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §304, 66 Stat. 237.)

Admission of Alaska as State

Alaska Statehood provisions as not repealing, amending, or modifying the provisions of this section, see section 24 of Pub. L. 85–508, July 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 339, set out as a note preceding former section 21 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§1405. Persons born in Hawaii

A person born in Hawaii on or after August 12, 1898, and before April 30, 1900, is declared to be a citizen of the United States as of April 30, 1900. A person born in Hawaii on or after April 30, 1900, is a citizen of the United States at birth. A person who was a citizen of the Republic of Hawaii on August 12, 1898, is declared to be a citizen of the United States as of April 30, 1900.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §305, 66 Stat. 237.)

Admission of Hawaii as State

Hawaii Statehood provisions as not repealing, amending, or modifying the provisions of this section, see section 20 of Pub. L. 86–3, Mar. 18, 1959, 73 Stat. 13, set out as a note at the beginning of chapter 3 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

§1406. Persons living in and born in the Virgin Islands

(a) The following persons and their children born subsequent to January 17, 1917, and prior to February 25,1927, are declared to be citizens of the United States as of February 25, 1927:

(1) All former Danish citizens who, on January 17, 1917, resided in the Virgin Islands of the United States, and were residing in those islands or in the United States or Puerto Rico on February 25, 1927, and who did not make the declaration required to preserve their Danish citizenship by article 6 of the treaty entered into on August 4, 1916, between the United States and Denmark, or who, having made such a declaration have heretofore renounced or may hereafter renounce it by a declaration before a court of record;

(2) All natives of the Virgin Islands of the United States who, on January 17, 1917, resided in those islands, and were residing in those islands or in the United States or Puerto Rico on February 25, 1927, and who were not on February 25, 1927, citizens or subjects of any foreign country;

(3) All natives of the Virgin Islands of the United States who, on January 17, 1917, resided in the United States, and were residing in those islands on February 25, 1927, and who were not on February 25, 1927, citizens or subjects of any foreign country; and

(4) All natives of the Virgin Islands of the United States who, on June 28, 1932, were residing in continental United States, the Virgin Islands of the United States, Puerto Rico, the Canal Zone, or any other insular possession or territory of the United States, and who, on June 28, 1932, were not citizens or subjects of any foreign country, regardless of their place of residence on January 17, 1917.

(b) All persons born in the Virgin Islands of the United States on or after January 17, 1917, and prior to February 25, 1927, and subject to the jurisdiction of the United States are declared to be citizens of the United States as of February 25, 1927; and all persons born in those islands on or after February 25, 1927, and subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, are declared to be citizens of the United States at birth.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §306, 66 Stat. 237.)

§1407. Persons living in and born in Guam

(a) The following persons, and their children born after April 11, 1899, are declared to be citizens of the United States as of August 1, 1950, if they were residing on August 1, 1950, on the island of Guam or other territory over which the United States exercises rights of sovereignty:

(1) All inhabitants of the island of Guam on April 11, 1899, including those temporarily absent from the island on that date, who were Spanish subjects, who after that date continued to reside in Guam or other territory over which the United States exercises sovereignty, and who have taken no affirmative steps to preserve or acquire foreign nationality; and

(2) All persons born in the island of Guam who resided in Guam on April 11, 1899, including those temporarily absent from the island on that date, who after that date continued to reside in Guam or other territory over which the United States exercises sovereignty, and who have taken no affirmative steps to preserve or acquire foreign nationality.

(b) All persons born in the island of Guam on or after April 11, 1899 (whether before or after August 1, 1950) subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, are declared to be citizens of the United States: Provided, That in the case of any person born before August 1, 1950, he has taken no affirmative steps to preserve or acquire foreign nationality.

(c) Any person hereinbefore described who is a citizen or national of a country other than the United States and desires to retain his present political status shall have made, prior to August 1, 1952, a declaration under oath of such desire, said declaration to be in form and executed in the manner prescribed by regulations. From and after the making of such a declaration any such person shall be held not to be a national of the United States by virtue of this chapter.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §307, 66 Stat. 237.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original, "this Act", meaning act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, known as the Immigration and Nationality Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of this title and Tables.

§1408. Nationals but not citizens of the United States at birth

Unless otherwise provided in section 1401 of this title, the following shall be nationals, but not citizens, of the United States at birth:

(1) A person born in an outlying possession of the United States on or after the date of formal acquisition of such possession;

(2) A person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents both of whom are nationals, but not citizens, of the United States, and have had a residence in the United States, or one of its outlying possessions prior to the birth of such person;

(3) A person of unknown parentage found in an outlying possession of the United States while under the age of five years, until shown, prior to his attaining the age of twenty-one years, not to have been born in such outlying possession; and

(4) A person born outside the United States and its outlying possessions of parents one of whom is an alien, and the other a national, but not a citizen, of the United States who, prior to the birth of such person, was physically present in the United States or its outlying possessions for a period or periods totaling not less than seven years in any continuous period of ten years—

(A) during which the national parent was not outside the United States or its outlying possessions for a continuous period of more than one year, and

(B) at least five years of which were after attaining the age of fourteen years.


The proviso of section 1401(g) of this title shall apply to the national parent under this paragraph in the same manner as it applies to the citizen parent under that section.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §308, 66 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 99–396, §15(a), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 842; Pub. L. 100–525, §3(2), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2614.)

Amendments

1988—Par. (4). Pub. L. 100–525 amended Pub. L. 99–396. See 1986 Amendment note below.

1986—Par. (4). Pub. L. 99–396, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–525, §3, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2614, provided that the amendment made by section 3 is effective as if included in the enactment of Pub. L. 99–396.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–396, §15(b), Aug. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 843, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to persons born before, on, or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 27, 1986]. In the case of a person born before the date of the enactment of this Act—

"(1) the status of a national of the United States shall not be considered to be conferred upon the person until the date the person establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary of State that the person meets the requirements of section 308(4) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [par. (4) of this section], and

"(2) the person shall not be eligible to vote in any general election in American Samoa earlier than January 1, 1987."

§1409. Children born out of wedlock

(a) The provisions of paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (g) of section 1401 of this title, and of paragraph (2) of section 1408 of this title, shall apply as of the date of birth to a person born out of wedlock if—

(1) a blood relationship between the person and the father is established by clear and convincing evidence,

(2) the father had the nationality of the United States at the time of the person's birth,

(3) the father (unless deceased) has agreed in writing to provide financial support for the person until the person reaches the age of 18 years, and

(4) while the person is under the age of 18 years—

(A) the person is legitimated under the law of the person's residence or domicile,

(B) the father acknowledges paternity of the person in writing under oath, or

(C) the paternity of the person is established by adjudication of a competent court.


(b) Except as otherwise provided in section 405 of this Act, the provisions of section 1401(g) of this title shall apply to a child born out of wedlock on or after January 13, 1941, and before December 24, 1952, as of the date of birth, if the paternity of such child is established at any time while such child is under the age of twenty-one years by legitimation.

(c) Notwithstanding the provision of subsection (a) of this section, a person born, after December 23, 1952, outside the United States and out of wedlock shall be held to have acquired at birth the nationality status of his mother, if the mother had the nationality of the United States at the time of such person's birth, and if the mother had previously been physically present in the United States or one of its outlying possessions for a continuous period of one year.

(June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title III, ch. 1, §309, 66 Stat. 238; Pub. L. 97–116, §18(l), Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1620; Pub. L. 99–653, §13, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 3657; Pub. L. 100–525, §§8(k), 9(r), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2617, 2621.)

References in Text

Section 405 of this Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 405 of act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, 66 Stat. 280, which is set out as a Savings Clause note under section 1101 of this title.

Constitutionality

For information regarding constitutionality of certain provisions of this section, see Congressional Research Service, The Constitution of the United States of America: Analysis and Interpretation, Appendix 1, Acts of Congress Held Unconstitutional in Whole or in Part by the Supreme Court of the United States.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–525, §8(k), amended Pub. L. 99–653. See 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–525, §9(r)(1), substituted "before December 24, 1952" for "prior to the effective date of this chapter" and "at any time" for "before or after the effective date of this chapter and".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–525, §9(r)(2), substituted "after December 23, 1952" for "on or after the effective date of this chapter".

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–653, as amended by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(k), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "The provisions of paragraphs (c), (d), (e), and (g) of section 1401 of this title, and of paragraph (2) of section 1408, of this title shall apply as of the date of birth to a child born out of wedlock on or after the effective date of this chapter, if the paternity of such child is established while such child is under the age of twenty-one years by legitimation."

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–116, §18(l)(1), substituted "(c), (d), (e), and (g) of section 1401" for "(3) to (5) and (7) of section 1401(a)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–116, §18(l)(2), substituted "section 1401(g)" for "section 1401(a)(7)".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 8(k) of Pub. L. 100–525 effective as if included in the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act Amendments of 1986, Pub. L. 99–653, see section 309(b)(15) of Pub. L. 102–232, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendments note under section 1101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–653, §23(e), as added by Pub. L. 100–525, §8(r), Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2619, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2)(B), the new section 309(a) [8 U.S.C. 1409(a)] (as defined in paragraph (4)(A)) shall apply to persons who have not attained 18 years of age as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 14, 1986].

"(2) The old section 309(a) shall apply—

"(A) to any individual who has attained 18 years of age as of the date of the enactment of this Act, and

"(B) any individual with respect to whom paternity was established by legitimation before such date.

"(3) An individual who is at least 15 years of age, but under 18 years of age, as of the date of the enactment of this Act, may elect to have the old section 309(a) apply to the individual instead of the new section 309(a).

"(4) In this subsection:

"(A) The term 'new section 309(a)' means section 309(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1409(a)], as amended by section 13 of this Act [section 13 of Pub. L. 99–653] and as in effect after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(B) The term 'old section 309(a)' means section 309(a) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, as in effect before the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–116 effective Dec. 29, 1981, see section 21(a) of Pub. L. 97–116, set out as a note under section 1101 of this title.