[USC02] 8 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER I: ORGANIZATION
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8 USC CHAPTER 13, SUBCHAPTER I: ORGANIZATION
From Title 8—ALIENS AND NATIONALITYCHAPTER 13—IMMIGRATION AND NATURALIZATION SERVICE

SUBCHAPTER I—ORGANIZATION

§1551. Immigration and Naturalization Service

There is created and established in the Department of Justice an Immigration and Naturalization Service.

(Feb. 14, 1903, ch. 552, §4, 32 Stat. 826; June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, §1, 34 Stat. 596; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §3, 37 Stat. 737; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. V, eff. June 14, 1940, 5 F.R. 2223, 54 Stat. 1238.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 342 of Title 5 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–313, title II, §201, Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1262, provided that: "This title [enacting subchapter II of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Immigration Services and Infrastructure Improvements Act of 2000'."

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

The Immigration and Naturalization Service was abolished by section 291(a) of Title 6, Domestic Security, upon completion of all transfers from the Immigration and Naturalization Service as provided for by chapter 1 of Title 6.

Functions of the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization performed under the Border Patrol program, the detention and removal program, the intelligence program, the investigations program, and the inspections program, and all personnel, assets, and liabilities pertaining to such programs, were transferred to the Under Secretary for Border and Transportation Security of the Department of Homeland Security by section 251 of Title 6 and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Functions of the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization relating to adjudications of immigrant visa petitions, adjudications of naturalization petitions, adjudications of asylum and refugee applications, adjudications performed at service centers, and all other adjudications performed by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and all personnel, infrastructure, and funding provided to the Commissioner in support of such functions, were transferred to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services of the Department of Homeland Security by section 271(b) of Title 6 and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified.

Functions performed by the Statistics Branch of the Office of Policy and Planning of the Immigration and Naturalization Service with respect to the functions of the Commissioner referred to in the two preceding paragraphs were transferred to the Under Secretary for Management of the Department of Homeland Security by former section 341(b)(2) of Title 6 and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified.

Functions under the immigration laws of the United States with respect to the care of unaccompanied alien children that were vested by statute in, or performed by, the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization (or any officer, employee, or component of the Immigration and Naturalization Service) were transferred to the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement of the Department of Health and Human Services by section 279(a) of Title 6 and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified.

Personnel of the Department of Justice employed in connection with the functions transferred by part E (§271 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 1 of Title 6 (and functions that the Secretary of Homeland Security determines are properly related to the functions of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services), were transferred to the Director of the Bureau of Citizenship and Immigration Services by section 275(b)(2) of Title 6 and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified. Personnel of the Department of Justice employed in connection with the functions transferred by section 279 of Title 6 were transferred to the Director of the Office of Refugee Resettlement by section 279(f)(3) of Title 6 and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified.

For treatment of references to any agency, officer, or office, etc. the functions of which were transferred to the Department of Homeland Security, see sections 552(d) and 557 of Title 6.

Independent Comprehensive Management Analysis of Service Operations; Arrangements Respecting, Etc.

Pub. L. 96–132, §10, Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1047, provided that: "The Attorney General shall make arrangements with an appropriate entity for an independent comprehensive management analysis of the operations of the Immigration and Naturalization Service for the purpose of making such operations efficient and cost effective. After the completion of such analysis, the Attorney General shall promptly submit a report to the appropriate committees of Congress on the results of such analysis together with any administrative or legislative recommendations of the Attorney General to improve the operations of the Service."

Office of Special Investigator; Functions, Establishment, Powers, Etc.

Pub. L. 96–132, §22, Nov. 30, 1979, 93 Stat. 1050, provided that:

"(a) In order to create an independent and objective unit—

"(1) to conduct and supervise audits and investigations relating to programs and operations of the Immigration and Naturalization Service,

"(2) to provide leadership and coordination and recommend policies for activities designed (A) to promote economy, efficiency, and effectiveness in the administration of, and (B) to prevent and detect fraud and abuse in, such programs and operations, and

"(3) to provide a means for keeping the Commissioner of the Immigration and Naturalization Service and the Congress fully and currently informed about problems and deficiencies relating to the administration of such programs and operations and the necessity for and progress of corrective action,

there is hereby established in the Immigration and Naturalization Service of the Department of Justice an Office of Special Investigator (hereinafter in this section referred to as 'the Office').

"(b)(1) There shall be at the head of the Office a Special Investigator (hereinafter in this section referred to as 'the Special Investigator') who shall be appointed by the Attorney General without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of integrity and demonstrated ability in accounting, auditing, financial analysis, law, management analysis, public administration, or investigations. The Special Investigator shall report to and be under the general supervision of the Commissioner, who shall not prevent or prohibit the Special Investigator from initiating, carrying out, or completing any audit or investigation, or from issuing any subpena during the course of any audit or investigation.

"(2) The Special Investigator may be removed from office by the Attorney General. The Attorney General shall communicate the reasons for any such removal to both Houses of Congress.

"(3) For the purposes of section 7324 of title 5 of the United States Code, the Special Investigator shall not be considered to be an employee who determines policies to be pursued by the United States in the nationwide administration of Federal laws.

"(4) The Special Investigator shall, in accordance with applicable laws and regulations governing the civil service—

"(A) appoint an Assistant Special Investigator for Auditing who shall have the responsibility for supervising the performance of auditing activities relating to programs and operations of the Service, and

"(B) appoint an Assistant Special Investigator for Investigations who shall have the responsibility for the performance of investigative activities relating to such programs and operations.

"(c) The following provisions of the Inspector General Act of 1978 (Public Law 95–452) [set out in the Appendix to Title 5] shall apply to the Special Investigator, the Office, the Commissioner, and the Service under this section in the same manner as those provisions apply to an Inspector General, an Office, the head of the establishment, and an establishment under such Act:

"(1) Section 4 (relating to duties and responsibilities of an Inspector General and the manner in which they are carried out).

"(2) Section 5 (relating to reports required to be prepared and furnished by or to an Inspector General and their transmittal and availability).

"(3) Section 6 (relating to the authority of an Inspector General and related administrative provisions).

"(4) Section 7 (relating to the treatment of employee complaints by an Inspector General).

"(d) The Attorney General is authorized to appoint such staff as may be necessary to carry out this section.

"(e) For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'Service' means the Immigration and Naturalization Service;

"(2) the term 'Department' means the Department of Justice; and

"(3) the term 'Commissioner' means the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization.

"(f) The Special Investigator shall be compensated at the rate then payable under section 5316 of title 5 of the United States Code for level V of the Executive Schedule.

"(g) The provisions of this section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1979] and shall cease to have effect the earlier of—

"(1) 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act; and

"(2) the establishment of an office of inspector general for the Department of Justice.

"(h) In addition to any other sums authorized to be appropriated by this Act, there are authorized to be appropriated $376,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1980 to carry out this section."

History of Immigration and Naturalization Agencies

By acts Aug. 3, 1882, ch. 376, §§2, 3, 22 Stat. 214; Feb. 23, 1887, ch. 220, 24 Stat. 415, the administration of the immigration laws then in force was reposed in the Secretary of the Treasury. Subsequently, by act Mar. 3, 1891, ch. 551, §7, 26 Stat. 1087, the office of the Superintendent of Immigration was created as a permanent immigration agency and he in turn was designated Commissioner General of Immigration under the heading "Bureau of Immigration" by act Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 177, §1, 28 Stat. 780. Upon the establishment of the Department of Commerce and Labor, the Commissioner General of Immigration and the Bureau of Immigration were transferred to that Department by act Feb. 14, 1903, ch. 552, §4, 32 Stat. 825, and thereafter were redesignated the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization by act June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, §1, 34 Stat. 596. The Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization was transferred to the Department of Labor upon its establishment by act Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, 37 Stat. 736, and divided into two bureaus to be known as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization, respectively. Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933, set out as note under section 901 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, again consolidated these bureaus to form the Immigration and Naturalization Service, under a "Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization", which was then transferred from the Department of Labor to the Department of Justice by 1940 Reorg. Plan No. V, eff. June 14, 1940, 5 F.R. 2223, 54 Stat. 1238, set out in the Appendix to Title 5.


Executive Documents

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by law in Attorney General, Department of Justice, or any other officer or any agency of that Department, with respect to inspection at regular inspection locations at ports of entry of persons, and documents of persons, entering or leaving United States, were to have been transferred to Secretary of the Treasury by 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §2, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 15932, 87 Stat. 1091, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. The transfer was negated by section 1(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 93–253, Mar. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 50, which repealed section 2 of 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. July 1, 1973.

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5. See sections 509 and 510 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§1552. Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization; office

The office of the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization is created and established, and the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, is authorized and directed to appoint such officer. The Attorney General shall provide him with a suitable, furnished office in the city of Washington, and with such books of record and facilities for the discharge of the duties of his office as may be necessary.

(Mar. 3, 1891, ch. 551, §7, 26 Stat. 1085; Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 177, §1, 28 Stat. 780; Apr. 28, 1904, Pub. R. 33, 33 Stat. 591; Mar. 4, 1913, ch. 141, §3, 37 Stat. 737; Feb. 5, 1917, ch. 29, §23, 39 Stat. 892; Mar. 3, 1917, ch. 163, §1, 39 Stat. 1118; Mar. 28, 1922, ch. 117, title II, 42 Stat. 486; Jan. 5, 1923, ch. 24, title II, 42 Stat. 1127; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. V, eff. June 14, 1940, 5 F.R. 2223, 54 Stat. 1238; June 27, 1952, ch. 477, title IV, §403(a)(4), 66 Stat. 279.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 342b of Title 5 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Amendments

1952—Act June 27, 1952, struck out second and fourth sentences relating to duties of commissioner and appointment of an assistant commissioner.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.


Executive Documents

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by law in Attorney General, Department of Justice, or any other officer or any agency of that Department, with respect to inspection at regular inspection locations at ports of entry of persons, and documents of persons, entering or leaving United States, were to have been transferred to Secretary of the Treasury by 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §2, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 15932, 87 Stat. 1091, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and employees. The transfer was negated by section 1(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 93–253, Mar. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 50, which repealed section 2 of 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. July 1, 1973.

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5. See sections 509 and 510 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

History of Immigration and Naturalization Agencies

Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933, set out as a note under section 901 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, consolidated the two formerly separate bureaus known as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization to form the Immigration and Naturalization Service under a Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization, which was subsequently transferred from the Department of Labor to the Department of Justice by 1940 Reorg. Plan No. V, eff. June 14, 1940, 5 F.R. 2223, 54 Stat. 1238, set out in the Appendix to Title 5. See note set out under section 1551 of this title.

§1553. Assistant Commissioners and one District Director; compensation and salary grade

The compensation of the five assistant commissioners and one district director shall be at the rate of grade GS–16.

(June 20, 1956, ch. 414, title II, §201, 70 Stat. 307.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 342b–1 of Title 5 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act July 7, 1955, ch. 279, title II, §201, 69 Stat. 272.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§1554. Special immigrant inspectors at Washington

Special immigrant inspectors, not to exceed three, may be detailed for duty in the service at Washington.

(Mar. 2, 1895, ch. 177, §1, 28 Stat. 780; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Ex. Ord. No. 6166, is authority for the substitution of "service" for "bureau." See note set out under section 1551 of this title.

Section was formerly classified to section 342g of Title 5 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378. Thereafter, it was classified to section 111 of this title prior to its transfer to this section.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.


Executive Documents

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by law in Attorney General, Department of Justice, or any other officer or any agency of that Department, with respect to inspection at regular inspection locations at ports of entry of persons, and documents of persons, entering or leaving United States, were to have been transferred to Secretary of the Treasury by 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §2, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 15932, 87 Stat. 1091, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. The transfer was negated by section 1(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 93–253, Mar. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 50, which repealed section 2 of 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. July 1, 1973.

§1555. Immigration Service expenses

Appropriations now or hereafter provided for the Immigration and Naturalization Service shall be available for payment of (a) hire of privately owned horses for use on official business, under contract with officers or employees of the Service; (b) pay of interpreters and translators who are not citizens of the United States; (c) distribution of citizenship textbooks to aliens without cost to such aliens; (d) payment of allowances (at such rate as may be specified from time to time in the appropriation Act involved) to aliens, while held in custody under the immigration laws, for work performed; and (e) when so specified in the appropriation concerned, expenses of unforeseen emergencies of a confidential character, to be expended under the direction of the Attorney General, who shall make a certificate of the amount of any such expenditure as he may think it advisable not to specify, and every such certificate shall be deemed a sufficient voucher for the sum therein expressed to have been expended.

(July 28, 1950, ch. 503, §6, 64 Stat. 380.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 341d of Title 5 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.

§1556. Transferred


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section transferred to section 1353d of this title.

§1557. Prevention of transportation in foreign commerce of alien women and girls under international agreement; Commissioner designated as authority to receive and preserve information

For the purpose of regulating and preventing the transportation in foreign commerce of alien women and girls for purposes of prostitution and debauchery, and in pursuance of and for the purpose of carrying out the terms of the agreement or project of arrangement for the suppression of the white-slave traffic, adopted July 25, 1902, for submission to their respective governments by the delegates of various powers represented at the Paris Conference and confirmed by a formal agreement signed at Paris on May 18, 1904, and adhered to by the United States on June 6, 1908, as shown by the proclamation of the President of the United States dated June 15, 1908, the Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization is designated as the authority of the United States to receive and centralize information concerning the procuration of alien women and girls with a view to their debauchery, and to exercise supervision over such alien women and girls, receive their declarations, establish their identity, and ascertain from them who induced them to leave their native countries, respectively; and it shall be the duty of said Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization to receive and keep on file in his office the statements and declarations which may be made by such alien women and girls, and those which are hereinafter required pertaining to such alien women and girls engaged in prostitution or debauchery in this country, and to furnish receipts for such statements and declarations provided for in this Act to the persons, respectively, making and filing them.

(June 25, 1910, ch. 395, §6, 36 Stat. 826; Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act June 25, 1910, ch. 395, 36 Stat. 825, known as the White Slave Traffic Act, which was classified to this section and to sections 397 to 404 of former Title 18, Criminal Code and Criminal Procedure. The act, except for the provision set out as this section, was repealed by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683, section 1 of which enacted Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure. See sections 2421 et seq. of Title 18.

Codification

Section was originally classified to section 402(1) of Title 18 prior to the general revision and enactment of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, by act June 25, 1948, ch. 645, 62 Stat. 683. Thereafter, it was classified to section 342l of Title 5 prior to enactment of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, by Pub. L. 89–554, §1, Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 378, and was subsequently classified to section 238 of this title prior to transfer to this section.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of this title.


Executive Documents

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by law in Attorney General, Department of Justice, or any other officer or any agency of that Department, with respect to inspection at regular inspection locations at ports of entry of persons, and documents of persons, entering or leaving United States, were to have been transferred to Secretary of the Treasury by 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §2, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 15932, 87 Stat. 1091, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. The transfer was negated by section 1(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 93–253, Mar. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 50, which repealed section 2 of 1973 Reorg. Plan No. 2, eff. July 1, 1973.

Functions of all other officers of Department of Justice and functions of all agencies and employees of such Department, with a few exceptions, transferred to Attorney General, with power vested in him to authorize their performance or performance of any of his functions by any of such officers, agencies, and employees, by 1950 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3173, 64 Stat. 1261, set out in the Appendix to Title 5. See sections 509 and 510 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

History of Immigration and Naturalization Agencies

Ex. Ord. No. 6166, §14, June 10, 1933, set out as a note under section 901 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, consolidated the two formerly separate bureaus known as the Bureau of Immigration and the Bureau of Naturalization to form the Immigration and Naturalization Service under a Commissioner of Immigration and Naturalization. See note set out under section 1551 of this title.