[USC02] 16 USC 2409: Enforcement
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16 USC 2409: Enforcement Text contains those laws in effect on January 27, 2020
From Title 16-CONSERVATIONCHAPTER 44-ANTARCTIC CONSERVATION
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§2409. Enforcement

(a) Responsibility

The provisions of this chapter and of any regulation prescribed, or permit issued, under this chapter shall be enforced by the Director, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of 1 Interior, and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating. The Director and such Secretaries may utilize by agreement, on a reimbursable basis or otherwise, the personnel, services, and facilities of any other Federal agency or any State agency in the performance of such duties.

(b) Powers of authorized officers

Any officer who is authorized (by the Director, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or the head of any Federal or State agency which has entered into an agreement with the Director or any such Secretary under subsection (a)) to enforce the provisions of this chapter and of any regulation or permit issued under this chapter may-

(1) secure, execute, and serve any order, warrant, subpena, or other process, which is issued under the authority of the United States;

(2) search without warrant any person, place, or conveyance where there is reasonable grounds to believe that a person has committed or is attempting to commit an act prohibited by section 2403(a) of this title;

(3) seize without warrant any evidentiary item where there is reasonable grounds to believe that a person has committed or is attempting to commit any such act;

(4) offer and pay rewards for services or information which may lead to the apprehension of violators of such provisions;

(5) make inquiries, and administer to, or take from, any person an oath, affirmation, or affidavit, concerning any matter which is related to the enforcement of such provisions;

(6) detain for inspection and inspect any package, crate, or other container, including its contents, and all accompanying documents, upon importation into, or exportation from, the United States; and

(7) make an arrest with or without a warrant with respect to any act prohibited by section 2403(a) of this title if such officer has reasonable grounds to believe that the person to be arrested is committing such act in his presence or view, or has committed such act.

(c) Seizure

Any property or item seized pursuant to subsection (b) shall be held by any person authorized by the Director, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating pending the disposition of civil or criminal proceedings, or the institution of an action in rem for forfeiture of such property or item; except that such authorized person may, in lieu of holding such property or item, permit the owner or consignee thereof to post a bond or other satisfactory surety.

(d) Forfeiture

(1) Any animal or plant with respect to which an act prohibited by section 2403(a) of this title is committed shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(2) All guns, traps, nets, and other equipment, vessels, vehicles, aircraft, and other means of transportation used in the commission of any act prohibited by section 2403(a) of this title shall be subject to forfeiture to the United States.

(3) Upon the forfeiture to the United States of any property or item described in paragraph (1) or (2), or upon the abandonment or waiver of any claim to any such property or item, it shall be disposed of by the Director, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, as the case may be, in such a manner, consistent with the purposes of the chapter, as may be prescribed by regulation; except that no native mammal, native bird, or native plant may be disposed of by sale to the public.

(e) Application of customs laws

All provisions of law relating to the seizure, forfeiture, and condemnation of a vessel for violation of the customs laws, the disposition of such vessel or the proceeds from the sale thereof, and the remission or mitigation of such forfeiture, shall apply to the seizures and forfeitures incurred, or alleged to have been incurred, under the provision of this chapter, insofar as such provisions of law are applicable and not inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter; except that all powers, rights, and duties conferred or imposed by the customs laws upon any officer or employee of the Customs Service may, for the purposes of this chapter, also be exercised or performed by the Director, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, or the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating, or by such persons as each may designate.

(f) Regulations

The Director, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, and the Secretary of the department in which the Coast Guard is operating may prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to enforce the provisions of this chapter and of any regulation prescribed or permit issued under this chapter, and charge reasonable fees for the expenses of the United States incurred in carrying out inspections and in transferring, boarding, handling, or storing native mammals, native birds, native plants, animals and plants not indigenous to Antarctica, and other evidentiary items seized or forfeited under this chapter.

( Pub. L. 95–541, §10, Oct. 28, 1978, 92 Stat. 2055 .)

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

For transfer of functions, personnel, assets, and liabilities of the United States Customs Service of the Department of the Treasury, including functions of the Secretary of the Treasury relating thereto, to the Secretary of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 203(1), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6. For establishment of U.S. Customs and Border Protection in the Department of Homeland Security, treated as if included in Pub. L. 107–296 as of Nov. 25, 2002, see section 211 of Title 6, as amended generally by Pub. L. 114–125, and section 802(b) of Pub. L. 114–125, set out as a note under section 211 of Title 6.

1 So in original. Probably should be "of the".