[USC02] 29 USC 3225a: Addressing economic and workforce impacts of the opioid crisis
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*Public Laws 116-92 through 116-105 have been enacted but classifications have not yet been finalized. The currency ("laws in effect") date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized.

29 USC 3225a: Addressing economic and workforce impacts of the opioid crisis Text contains those laws in effect on January 28, 2020
From Title 29-LABORCHAPTER 32-WORKFORCE INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITYSUBCHAPTER I-WORKFORCE DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIESPart D-National Programs

§3225a. Addressing economic and workforce impacts of the opioid crisis

(a) Definitions

Except as otherwise expressly provided, in this section:

(1) WIOA definitions

The terms "core program", "individual with a barrier to employment", "local area", "local board", "one-stop operator", "outlying area", "State", "State board", and "supportive services" have the meanings given the terms in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3102).

(2) Education provider

The term "education provider" means-

(A) an institution of higher education, as defined in section 1001 of title 20; or

(B) a postsecondary vocational institution, as defined in section 1002(c) of title 20.

(3) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means-

(A) a State workforce agency;

(B) an outlying area; or

(C) a Tribal entity.

(4) Participating partnership

The term "participating partnership" means a partnership-

(A) evidenced by a written contract or agreement; and

(B) including, as members of the partnership, a local board receiving a subgrant under subsection (d) and 1 or more of the following:

(i) The eligible entity.

(ii) A treatment provider.

(iii) An employer or industry organization.

(iv) An education provider.

(v) A legal service or law enforcement organization.

(vi) A faith-based or community-based organization.

(vii) Other State or local agencies, including counties or local governments.

(viii) Other organizations, as determined to be necessary by the local board.

(ix) Indian Tribes or tribal organizations.

(5) Program participant

The term "program participant" means an individual who-

(A) is a member of a population of workers described in subsection (e)(2) that is served by a participating partnership through the pilot program under this section; and

(B) enrolls with the applicable participating partnership to receive any of the services described in subsection (e)(3).

(6) Provider of peer recovery support services

The term "provider of peer recovery support services" means a provider that delivers peer recovery support services through an organization described in section 290ee–2(a) of title 42.

(7) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Labor.

(8) State workforce agency

The term "State workforce agency" means the lead State agency with responsibility for the administration of a program under chapter 2 or 3 of subtitle B of title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3161 et seq., 3171 et seq.).

(9) Substance use disorder

The term "substance use disorder" has the meaning given such term by the Assistant Secretary for Mental Health and Substance Use.

(10) Treatment provider

The term "treatment provider"-

(A) means a health care provider that-

(i) offers services for treating substance use disorders and is licensed in accordance with applicable State law to provide such services; and

(ii) accepts health insurance for such services, including coverage under title XIX of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.); and


(B) may include-

(i) a nonprofit provider of peer recovery support services;

(ii) a community health care provider;

(iii) a Federally qualified health center (as defined in section 1861(aa) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395x));

(iv) an Indian health program (as defined in section 3 1 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (25 U.S.C. 1603)), including an Indian health program that serves an urban center (as defined in such section); and

(v) a Native Hawaiian health center (as defined in section 11711 of title 42).

(11) Tribal entity

The term "Tribal entity" includes any Indian Tribe, tribal organization, Indian-controlled organization serving Indians, Native Hawaiian organization, or Alaska Native entity, as such terms are defined or used in section 166 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3221).

(b) Pilot program and grants authorized

(1) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall carry out a pilot program to address economic and workforce impacts associated with a high rate of a substance use disorder. In carrying out the pilot program, the Secretary shall make grants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to enable such entities to make subgrants to local boards to address the economic and workforce impacts associated with a high rate of a substance use disorder.

(2) Grant amounts

The Secretary shall make each such grant in an amount that is not less than $500,000, and not more than $5,000,000, for a fiscal year.

(c) Grant applications

(1) In general

An eligible entity applying for a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time and in such form and manner as the Secretary may reasonably require, including the information described in this subsection.

(2) Significant impact on community by opioid and substance use disorder-related problems

(A) Demonstration

An eligible entity shall include in the application-

(i) information that demonstrates significant impact on the community by problems related to opioid abuse or another substance use disorder, by-

(I) identifying the counties, communities, regions, or local areas that have been significantly impacted and will be served through the grant (each referred to in this section as a "service area"); and

(II) demonstrating for each such service area, an increase equal to or greater than the national increase in such problems, between-

(aa) 1999; and

(bb) 2016 or the latest year for which data are available; and


(ii) a description of how the eligible entity will prioritize support for significantly impacted service areas described in clause (i)(I).

(B) Information

To meet the requirements described in subparagraph (A)(i)(II), the eligible entity may use information including data on-

(i) the incidence or prevalence of opioid abuse and other substance use disorders;

(ii) the age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths, as determined by the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;

(iii) the rate of non-fatal hospitalizations related to opioid abuse or other substance use disorders;

(iv) the number of arrests or convictions, or a relevant law enforcement statistic, that reasonably shows an increase in opioid abuse or another substance use disorder; or

(v) in the case of an eligible entity described in subsection (a)(3)(C), other alternative relevant data as determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(C) Support for State strategy

The eligible entity may include in the application information describing how the proposed services and activities are aligned with the State, outlying area, or Tribal strategy, as applicable, for addressing problems described in subparagraph (A) in specific service areas or across the State, outlying area, or Tribal land.

(3) Economic and employment conditions demonstrate additional federal support needed

(A) Demonstration

An eligible entity shall include in the application information that demonstrates that a high rate of a substance use disorder has caused, or is coincident to-

(i) an economic or employment downturn in the service area; or

(ii) persistent economically depressed conditions in such service area.

(B) Information

To meet the requirements of subparagraph (A), an eligible entity may use information including-

(i) documentation of any layoff, announced future layoff, legacy industry decline, decrease in an employment or labor market participation rate, or economic impact, whether or not the result described in this clause is overtly related to a high rate of a substance use disorder;

(ii) documentation showing decreased economic activity related to, caused by, or contributing to a high rate of a substance use disorder, including a description of how the service area has been impacted, or will be impacted, by such a decrease;

(iii) information on economic indicators, labor market analyses, information from public announcements, and demographic and industry data;

(iv) information on rapid response activities (as defined in section 3 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3102)) that have been or will be conducted, including demographic data gathered by employer or worker surveys or through other methods;

(v) data or documentation, beyond anecdotal evidence, showing that employers face challenges filling job vacancies due to a lack of skilled workers able to pass a drug test; or

(vi) any additional relevant data or information on the economy, workforce, or another aspect of the service area to support the application.

(d) Subgrant authorization and application process

(1) Subgrants authorized

(A) In general

An eligible entity receiving a grant under subsection (b)-

(i) may use not more than 5 percent of the grant funds for the administrative costs of carrying out the grant;

(ii) in the case of an eligible entity described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(3), shall use the remaining grant funds to make subgrants to local entities in the service area to carry out the services and activities described in subsection (e); and

(iii) in the case of an eligible entity described in subsection (a)(3)(C), shall use the remaining grant funds to carry out the services and activities described in subsection (e).

(B) Equitable distribution

In making subgrants under this subsection, an eligible entity shall ensure, to the extent practicable, the equitable distribution of subgrants, based on-

(i) geography (such as urban and rural distribution); and

(ii) significantly impacted service areas as described in subsection (c)(2).

(C) Timing of subgrant funds distribution

An eligible entity making subgrants under this subsection shall disburse subgrant funds to a local board receiving a subgrant from the eligible entity by the later of-

(i) the date that is 90 days after the date on which the Secretary makes the funds available to the eligible entity; or

(ii) the date that is 15 days after the date that the eligible entity makes the subgrant under subparagraph (A)(ii).

(2) Subgrant application

(A) In general

A local board desiring to receive a subgrant under this subsection from an eligible entity shall submit an application at such time and in such manner as the eligible entity may reasonably require, including the information described in this paragraph.

(B) Contents

Each application described in subparagraph (A) shall include-

(i) an analysis of the estimated performance of the local board in carrying out the proposed services and activities under the subgrant-

(I) based on-

(aa) primary indicators of performance described in section 116(c)(1)(A)(i) of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3141(c)(1)(A)(i),2 to assess estimated effectiveness of the proposed services and activities, including the estimated number of individuals with a substance use disorder who may be served by the proposed services and activities;

(bb) the record of the local board in serving individuals with a barrier to employment; and

(cc) the ability of the local board to establish a participating partnership; and


(II) which may include or utilize-

(aa) data from the National Center for Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention;

(bb) data from the Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration;

(cc) State vital statistics;

(dd) municipal police department records;

(ee) reports from local coroners; or

(ff) other relevant data; and


(ii) in the case of a local board proposing to serve a population described in subsection (e)(2)(B), a demonstration of the workforce shortage in the professional area to be addressed under the subgrant (which may include substance use disorder treatment and related services, non-addictive pain therapy and pain management services, mental health care treatment services, emergency response services, or mental health care), which shall include information that can demonstrate such a shortage, such as-

(I) the distance between-

(aa) communities affected by opioid abuse or another substance use disorder; and

(bb) facilities or professionals offering services in the professional area; or


(II) the maximum capacity of facilities or professionals to serve individuals in an affected community, or increases in arrests related to opioid or another substance use disorder, overdose deaths, or nonfatal overdose emergencies in the community.

(e) Subgrant services and activities

(1) In general

Each local board that receives a subgrant under subsection (d) shall carry out the services and activities described in this subsection through a participating partnership.

(2) Selection of population to be served

A participating partnership shall elect to provide services and activities under the subgrant to one or both of the following populations of workers:

(A) Workers, including dislocated workers, individuals with barriers to employment, new entrants in the workforce, or incumbent workers (employed or underemployed), each of whom-

(i) is directly or indirectly affected by a high rate of a substance use disorder; and

(ii) voluntarily confirms that the worker, or a friend or family member of the worker, has a history of opioid abuse or another substance use disorder.


(B) Workers, including dislocated workers, individuals with barriers to employment, new entrants in the workforce, or incumbent workers (employed or underemployed), who-

(i) seek to transition to professions that support individuals with a substance use disorder or at risk for developing such disorder,3 such as professions that provide-

(I) substance use disorder treatment and related services;

(II) services offered through providers of peer recovery support services;

(III) non-addictive pain therapy and pain management services;

(IV) emergency response services; or

(V) mental health care; and


(ii) need new or upgraded skills to better serve such a population of struggling or at-risk individuals.

(3) Services and activities

Each participating partnership shall use funds available through a subgrant under this subsection to carry out 1 or more of the following:

(A) Engaging employers

Engaging with employers to-

(i) learn about the skill and hiring requirements of employers;

(ii) learn about the support needed by employers to hire and retain program participants, and other individuals with a substance use disorder, and the support needed by such employers to obtain their commitment to testing creative solutions to employing program participants and such individuals;

(iii) connect employers and workers to on-the-job or customized training programs before or after layoff to help facilitate reemployment;

(iv) connect employers with an education provider to develop classroom instruction to complement on-the-job learning for program participants and such individuals;

(v) help employers develop the curriculum design of a work-based learning program for program participants and such individuals;

(vi) help employers employ program participants or such individuals engaging in a work-based learning program for a transitional period before hiring such a program participant or individual for full-time employment of not less than 30 hours a week; or

(vii) connect employers to program participants receiving concurrent outpatient treatment and job training services.

(B) Screening services

Providing screening services, which may include-

(i) using an evidence-based screening method to screen each individual seeking participation in the pilot program to determine whether the individual has a substance use disorder;

(ii) conducting an assessment of each such individual to determine the services needed for such individual to obtain or retain employment, including an assessment of strengths and general work readiness; or

(iii) accepting walk-ins or referrals from employers, labor organizations, or other entities recommending individuals to participate in such program.

(C) Individual treatment and employment plan

Developing an individual treatment and employment plan for each program participant-

(i) in coordination, as appropriate, with other programs serving the participant such as the core programs within the workforce development system under the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3101 et seq.); and

(ii) which shall include providing a case manager to work with each participant to develop the plan, which may include-

(I) identifying employment and career goals;

(II) exploring career pathways that lead to in-demand industries and sectors, as determined by the State board and the head of the State workforce agency or, as applicable, the Tribal entity;

(III) setting appropriate achievement objectives to attain the employment and career goals identified under subclause (I); or

(IV) developing the appropriate combination of services to enable the participant to achieve the employment and career goals identified under subclause (I).

(D) Outpatient treatment and recovery care

In the case of a participating partnership serving program participants described in paragraph (2)(A) with a substance use disorder, providing individualized and group outpatient treatment and recovery services for such program participants that are offered during the day and evening, and on weekends. Such treatment and recovery services-

(i) shall be based on a model that utilizes combined behavioral interventions and other evidence-based or evidence-informed interventions; and

(ii) may include additional services such as-

(I) health, mental health, addiction, or other forms of outpatient treatment that may impact a substance use disorder and co-occurring conditions;

(II) drug testing for a current substance use disorder prior to enrollment in career or training services or prior to employment;

(III) linkages to community services, including services offered by partner organizations designed to support program participants; or

(IV) referrals to health care, including referrals to substance use disorder treatment and mental health services.

(E) Supportive services

Providing supportive services, which shall include services such as-

(i) coordinated wraparound services to provide maximum support for program participants to assist the program participants in maintaining employment and recovery for not less than 12 months, as appropriate;

(ii) assistance in establishing eligibility for assistance under Federal, State, Tribal, and local programs providing health services, mental health services, vocational services, housing services, transportation services, social services, or services through early childhood education programs (as defined in section 1003 of title 20);

(iii) services offered through providers of peer recovery support services;

(iv) networking and mentorship opportunities; or

(v) any supportive services determined necessary by the local board.

(F) Career and job training services

Offering career services and training services, and related services, concurrently or sequentially with the services provided under subparagraphs (B) through (E). Such services shall include the following:

(i) Services provided to program participants who are in a pre-employment stage of the program, which may include-

(I) initial education and skills assessments;

(II) traditional classroom training funded through individual training accounts under chapter 3 of subtitle B of title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3171 et seq.);

(III) services to promote employability skills such as punctuality, personal maintenance skills, and professional conduct;

(IV) in-depth interviewing and evaluation to identify employment barriers and to develop individual employment plans;

(V) career planning that includes-

(aa) career pathways leading to in-demand, high-wage jobs; and

(bb) job coaching, job matching, and job placement services;


(VI) provision of payments and fees for employment and training-related applications, tests, and certifications; or

(VII) any other appropriate career service or training service described in section 134(c) of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3174(c)).


(ii) Services provided to program participants during their first 6 months of employment to ensure job retention, which may include-

(I) case management and support services, including a continuation of the services described in clause (i);

(II) a continuation of skills training, and career and technical education, described in clause (i) that is conducted in collaboration with the employers of such participants;

(III) mentorship services and job retention support for such participants; or

(IV) targeted training for managers and workers working with such participants (such as mentors), and human resource representatives in the business in which such participants are employed.


(iii) Services to assist program participants in maintaining employment for not less than 12 months, as appropriate.

(G) Proven and promising practices

Leading efforts in the service area to identify and promote proven and promising strategies and initiatives for meeting the needs of employers and program participants.

(4) Limitations

A participating partnership may not use-

(A) more than 10 percent of the funds received under a subgrant under subsection (d) for the administrative costs of the partnership;

(B) more than 10 percent of the funds received under such subgrant for the provision of treatment and recovery services, as described in paragraph (3)(D); and

(C) more than 10 percent of the funds received under such subgrant for the provision of supportive services described in paragraph (3)(E) to program participants.

(f) Performance accountability

(1) Reports

The Secretary shall establish quarterly reporting requirements for recipients of grants and subgrants under this section that, to the extent practicable, are based on the performance accountability system under section 116 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3141) and, in the case of a grant awarded to an eligible entity described in subsection (a)(3)(C), section 166(h) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 3221(h)), including the indicators described in subsection (c)(1)(A)(i) of such section 116 and the requirements for local area performance reports under subsection (d) of such section 116.

(2) Evaluations

(A) Authority to enter into agreements

The Secretary shall ensure that an independent evaluation is conducted on the pilot program carried out under this section to determine the impact of the program on employment of individuals with substance use disorders. The Secretary shall enter into an agreement with eligible entities receiving grants under this section to pay for all or part of such evaluation.

(B) Methodologies to be used

The independent evaluation required under this paragraph shall use experimental designs using random assignment or, when random assignment is not feasible, other reliable, evidence-based research methodologies that allow for the strongest possible causal inferences.

(g) Funding

(1) Covered fiscal year

In this subsection, the term "covered fiscal year" means any of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(2) Using funding for national dislocated worker grants

Subject to paragraph (4) and notwithstanding section 132(a)(2)(A) and subtitle D 1 of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (29 U.S.C. 3172(a)(2)(A), 3221 et seq.), the Secretary may use, to carry out the pilot program under this section for a covered fiscal year-

(A) funds made available to carry out section 170 of such Act (29 U.S.C. 3225) for that fiscal year;

(B) funds made available to carry out section 170 of such Act that remain available for that fiscal year; and

(C) funds that remain available under section 172(f) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 3227(f)).

(3) Availability of funds

Funds appropriated under section 136(c) of such Act (29 U.S.C. 3181(c)) and made available to carry out section 170 of such Act for a fiscal year shall remain available for use under paragraph (2) for a subsequent fiscal year until expended.

(4) Limitation

The Secretary may not use more than $100,000,000 of the funds described in paragraph (2) for any covered fiscal year under this section.

( Pub. L. 115–271, title VIII, §8041, Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 4083 .)

References in Text

The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(8), (e)(3)(C)(i), (F)(i)(II), and (g)(2), is Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425 , which enacted this chapter, repealed chapter 30 (§2801 et seq.) of this title and chapter 73 (§9201 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, and made amendments to numerous other sections and notes in the Code. Chapters 2 and 3 of subtitle B of title I of the Act are classified generally to subparts 2 (§3161 et seq.) and 3 (§3171 et seq.) of part B of subchapter I of this chapter. Subtitle D of the Act probably means subtitle D of title I of the Act, which is classified generally to this part. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(10)(A)(ii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620 . Title XIX of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 3 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(10)(B)(iv), probably means section 4 of that Act, which is classified to section 1603 of Title 25, Indians, and defines terms, including "Indian health program" and "urban center".

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Substance Use–Disorder Prevention that Promotes Opioid Recovery and Treatment for Patients and Communities Act, also known as the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, and not as part of title I of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act which comprises this subchapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Another closing parenthesis probably should precede the comma.

3 So in original. Probably should be "such a disorder,".