42 USC 247d-4: Facilities and capacities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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42 USC 247d-4: Facilities and capacities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Text contains those laws in effect on May 21, 2024
From Title 42-THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 6A-PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICESUBCHAPTER II-GENERAL POWERS AND DUTIESPart B-Federal-State Cooperation

§247d–4. Facilities and capacities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

(a) In general

(1) Findings

Congress finds that the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an essential role in defending against and combatting public health threats domestically and abroad and requires secure and modern facilities, and expanded, improved, and appropriately maintained capabilities related to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies, sufficient to enable such Centers to conduct this important mission.

(2) Facilities

(A) In general

The Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention may design, construct, and equip new facilities, renovate existing facilities (including laboratories, laboratory support buildings, scientific communication facilities, transshipment complexes, secured and isolated parking structures, office buildings, and other facilities and infrastructure), and upgrade security of such facilities, in order to better conduct the capacities described in section 247d–1 of this title, and for supporting public health activities.

(B) Multiyear contracting authority

For any project of designing, constructing, equipping, or renovating any facility under subparagraph (A), the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention may enter into a single contract or related contracts that collectively include the full scope of the project, and the solicitation and contract shall contain the clause "availability of funds" found at section 52.232–18 of title 48, Code of Federal Regulations.

(3) Improving the capacities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

The Secretary shall expand, improve, enhance, and appropriately maintain the capabilities of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention relating to preparedness for and responding effectively to bioterrorism and other public health emergencies, by-

(A) expanding or enhancing the training of personnel;

(B) improving communications facilities and networks, including delivery of necessary information to rural areas;

(C) improving capabilities for public health surveillance and reporting activities, taking into account the integrated system or systems of public health alert communications and surveillance networks under subsection (b); and

(D) improving laboratory facilities related to bioterrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and other public health emergencies, including increasing the security of such facilities.

(4) Study of resources for facilities and capacities

Not later than June 1, 2022, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on Federal spending in fiscal years 2013 through 2018 for activities authorized under this subsection. Such study shall include a review and assessment of obligations and expenditures directly related to each activity under paragraphs (2) and (3), including a specific accounting of, and delineation between, obligations and expenditures incurred for the construction, renovation, equipping, and security upgrades of facilities and associated contracts under this subsection, and the obligations and expenditures incurred to establish and improve the situational awareness and biosurveillance network under subsection (b), and shall identify the agency or agencies incurring such obligations and expenditures.

(b) Establishment of systems of public health communications and surveillance networks

(1) In general

The Secretary, directly or through awards of grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements, shall provide for the establishment of an integrated system or systems of public health alert communications and surveillance networks between and among-

(A) Federal, State, local, and Tribal public health officials; and

(B) public and private health-related laboratories, hospitals, poison control centers, immunization information systems, and other health care facilities; 1

(2) Requirements

The Secretary shall develop a plan to, and ensure that networks under paragraph (1) allow for the timely sharing and discussion, in a secure manner and in a form readily usable for analytical approaches, of essential, deidentified information concerning bioterrorism or another public health emergency, or recommended methods for responding to such an attack or emergency, allowing for coordination to maximize all-hazards medical and public health preparedness and response and to minimize duplication of effort. The Secretary shall ensure that the activities carried out pursuant to the previous sentence are conducted in a manner that protects personal privacy, to the extent required by applicable Federal and State information privacy or security law, at a minimum.

(3) Standards

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after June 24, 2019, the Secretary, in cooperation with health care providers, State, local, Tribal, and territorial public health officials, and relevant Federal agencies (including the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology and the National Institute of Standards and Technology), shall, as necessary, adopt technical and reporting standards, including standards for interoperability as defined by section 300jj of this title, for networks under paragraph (1) and update such standards as necessary. Such standards shall be made available on the internet website of the Department of Health and Human Services, in a manner that does not compromise national security.

(B) Deference to standards development organizations

In adopting and implementing standards under this subsection and subsection (c), the Secretary shall give deference to standards published by standards development organizations and voluntary consensus-based standards entities.

(c) Modernizing public health situational awareness and biosurveillance

(1) In general

The Secretary, in collaboration with State, local, and Tribal public health officials, shall establish, modernize, and improve as applicable and appropriate, a near real-time electronic nationwide public health situational awareness capability through an interoperable network of systems to share data and information that is deidentified, as applicable, to enhance early detection of, rapid response to, and management of, potentially catastrophic infectious disease outbreaks, novel emerging threats, and other public health emergencies that originate domestically or abroad. Such network shall be built on existing State situational awareness systems or enhanced systems that enable such interoperability, to the extent practicable. The Secretary shall ensure that the activities carried out pursuant to this paragraph are conducted in a manner that protects personal privacy, to the extent required by applicable Federal and State information privacy or security law, at a minimum.

(2) Coordination and consultation

In establishing and improving the network under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall-

(A) facilitate coordination among agencies within the Department of Health and Human Services that provide, or have the potential to provide, information and data to, and analyses for, the situational awareness and biosurveillance network under paragraph (1), including coordination among relevant agencies related to health care services, the facilitation of health information exchange (including the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology), and public health emergency preparedness and response; and

(B) consult with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Commerce (and the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology), the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of Homeland Security, the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, and the heads of other Federal agencies, as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(3) Elements

(A) In general

The network described in paragraph (1) shall include data and information transmitted in a standardized format from-

(i) State, local, and Tribal public health entities, including public health laboratories;

(ii) Federal health agencies;

(iii) zoonotic disease monitoring systems; and

(iv) public and private sector health care entities, hospitals, pharmacies, poison control centers or professional organizations in the field of poison control, immunization information systems, community health centers, health centers, clinical laboratories, and public environmental health agencies, to the extent practicable and provided that such data are voluntarily provided simultaneously to the Secretary and appropriate State, local, and Tribal public health agencies.

(B) Review

Not later than 2 years after June 24, 2019, and every 6 years thereafter, the Secretary shall conduct a review of the elements described in subparagraph (A). Such review shall include a discussion of the addition of any elements pursuant to clause (v), including elements added to advancing new technologies, and identify any challenges in the incorporation of elements under subparagraph (A), and make recommendations to improve the quality of data collected pursuant to subparagraph (A) to ensure complete, accurate, and timely sharing of such data, as appropriate, across such elements as described in subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall provide such review to the congressional committees of jurisdiction.

(4) Rule of construction

Paragraph (3) shall not be construed as requiring separate reporting of data and information from each source listed.

(5) Required activities

(A) In general

In establishing, operating, and updating, as appropriate, the network described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall-

(i) utilize applicable interoperability standards as adopted by the Secretary, and in consultation with the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, through a joint public and private sector process;

(ii) define minimal data elements for such network;

(iii) in collaboration with State, local, and Tribal public health officials, integrate and build upon existing State, local, and Tribal capabilities, ensuring simultaneous sharing of data, information, and analyses that is deidentified, as applicable, from the network described in paragraph (1) with State, local, and Tribal public health agencies in accordance with applicable Federal and State privacy and security law;

(iv) in collaboration with State, local, and Tribal public health officials, develop procedures and standards for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data that States, regions, or other entities collect and report to the network described in paragraph (1);

(v) pilot test standards and implementation specifications, consistent with the process described in section 300jj–12(b)(3)(C) of this title, which State, local, Tribal, and territorial public health entities may utilize, on a voluntary basis, as a part of the network; and

(vi) in collaboration with State, local, and Tribal public health officials, integrate and update applicable existing public health data systems and networks of the Department of Health and Human Services to reflect technological advancements, consistent with section 300hh–33 of this title, as applicable.

(B) Public meeting

(i) In general

Not later than 180 days after June 24, 2019, and 180 days after December 29, 2022, the Secretary shall convene a public meeting for purposes of discussing and providing input on the potential goals, functions, and uses of the network described in paragraph (1) and incorporating the elements described in paragraph (3)(A).

(ii) Experts

The public meeting shall include representatives of relevant Federal agencies (including representatives from the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology and the National Institute of Standards and Technology); State, local, Tribal, and territorial public health officials; stakeholders with expertise in biosurveillance and situational awareness; stakeholders with expertise in capabilities relevant to biosurveillance and situational awareness, such as experts in informatics and data analytics (including experts in prediction, modeling, or forecasting); experts in State-based public health data systems; experts in standards and implementation specifications, including transaction standards; and experts in privacy and data security.

(iii) Topics

Such public meeting shall include a discussion of-

(I) data elements, including minimal or essential data elements, that are voluntarily provided for such network, which may include elements from public health and public and private health care entities, to the extent practicable;

(II) standards and implementation specifications that may improve the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data during a public health emergency;

(III) strategies to encourage the access, exchange, and use of information;

(IV) considerations for State, local, Tribal, and territorial capabilities and infrastructure related to data exchange and interoperability, including existing public health data systems;

(V) privacy and security protections provided at the Federal, State, local, Tribal, and territorial levels, and by nongovernmental stakeholders;

(VI) opportunities for the incorporation of innovative technologies to improve the network;

(VII) strategies to integrate laboratory and public health data systems and capabilities to support rapid and accurate reporting of laboratory test results and associated relevant data;

(VIII) strategies to improve the collection, reporting, and dissemination of relevant, aggregated, deidentified demographic data to inform responses to public health emergencies, including identification of at-risk populations and to address potential health disparities; and

(IX) strategies to improve the electronic exchange of health information, as appropriate, between State and local health departments and health care providers and facilities to improve the detection of, and responses to, potentially catastrophic infectious disease outbreaks.

(6) Strategy and implementation plan

(A) In general

Not later than 18 months after June 24, 2019, and every 5 years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the congressional committees of jurisdiction a coordinated strategy and an accompanying implementation plan that-

(i) is informed by the public meeting under paragraph (5)(B);

(ii) includes a review and assessment of existing capabilities of the network and related infrastructure, including input provided by the public meeting under paragraph (5)(B);

(iii) identifies and demonstrates the measurable steps the Secretary will carry out to-

(I) develop, implement, and evaluate the network described in paragraph (1), utilizing elements described in paragraph (3)(A);

(II) modernize and enhance biosurveillance activities, including strategies to include innovative technologies and analytical approaches (including prediction and forecasting for pandemics and all-hazards) from public and private entities;

(III) improve information sharing, coordination, and communication among disparate biosurveillance systems supported by the Department of Health and Human Services, including the identification of methods to improve accountability, better utilize resources and workforce capabilities, and incorporate innovative technologies within and across agencies;

(IV) test and evaluate capabilities of the interoperable network of systems to improve situational awareness and biosurveillance capabilities;

(V) improve coordination and collaboration, as appropriate, with other Federal departments to improve the capabilities of the network and reduce administrative burden on State, local, and Tribal entities; and

(VI) implement applicable lessons learned from recent public health emergencies to address gaps in situational awareness and biosurveillance capabilities;


(iv) includes performance measures and the metrics by which performance measures will be assessed with respect to the measurable steps under clause (iii);

(v) establishes dates by which each measurable step under clause (iii) will be implemented, including a description of how such steps will further the goals of the network, consistent with paragraph (1); and

(vi) identifies and demonstrates measurable steps the Secretary will take to further develop and integrate infectious disease detection, support rapid, accurate, and secure sharing of laboratory test results, deidentified as appropriate, during a public health emergency, and improve coordination and collaboration with State, local, and Tribal public health officials, clinical laboratories, and other entities with expertise in public health surveillance.

(B) Annual budget plan

Not later than 2 years after June 24, 2019, and on an annual basis thereafter, in accordance with the strategy and implementation plan under this paragraph, the Secretary shall, taking into account recommendations provided by the National Biodefense Science Board, develop a budget plan based on the strategy and implementation plan under this section. Such budget plan shall include-

(i) a summary of resources previously expended to establish, improve, and utilize the nationwide public health situational awareness and biosurveillance network under paragraph (1);

(ii) estimates of costs and resources needed to establish and improve the network under paragraph (1) according to the strategy and implementation plan under subparagraph (A);

(iii) the identification of gaps and inefficiencies in nationwide public health situational awareness and biosurveillance capabilities, resources, and authorities needed to address such gaps; and

(iv) a strategy to minimize and address such gaps and improve inefficiencies.

(7) Consultation with the National Biodefense Science Board

In carrying out this section and consistent with section 247d–7g of this title, the National Biodefense Science Board shall provide expert advice and guidance, including recommendations, regarding the measurable steps the Secretary should take to modernize and enhance biosurveillance activities pursuant to the efforts of the Department of Health and Human Services to ensure comprehensive, real-time, all-hazards biosurveillance capabilities. In complying with the preceding sentence, the National Biodefense Science Board shall-

(A) identify the steps necessary to achieve a national biosurveillance system for human health (taking into account zoonotic disease, including gaps in scientific understanding of the interactions between human, animal, and environmental health), with international connectivity, where appropriate, that is predicated on State, regional, and community level capabilities and creates a networked system to allow for two-way information flow between and among Federal, State, and local government public health authorities and clinical health care providers;

(B) identify any duplicative surveillance programs and gaps in surveillance programs under the authority of the Secretary, or changes that are necessary to existing programs, in order to enhance and modernize such activities, minimize duplication, strengthen and streamline such activities under the authority of the Secretary, and achieve real-time and appropriate data that relate to disease activity, both human and zoonotic;

(C) coordinate with applicable existing advisory committees of the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, including such advisory committees consisting of representatives from State, local, and Tribal public health authorities and appropriate public and private sector health care entities, animal health organizations related to zoonotic disease, and academic institutions, in order to provide guidance on public health surveillance activities; and

(D) provide recommendations to the Secretary on policies and procedures to complete the steps described in this paragraph in a manner that is consistent with section 300hh–1 of this title.

(8) Situational awareness and biosurveillance as a national security priority

The Secretary, on a periodic basis as applicable and appropriate, shall meet with the Director of National Intelligence to inform the development and capabilities of the nationwide public health situational awareness and biosurveillance network.

(9) Rules of construction

(A) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to supplant, in whole or in part, State, local, or Tribal activities or responsibilities related to public health surveillance.

(B) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to alter the authority of the Secretary with respect to the types of data the Secretary may receive through systems supported or established under this section.

(d) State and regional systems to enhance situational awareness in public health emergencies

(1) In general

To implement the network described in subsection (c), the Secretary may award grants to States or consortia of States to enhance the ability of such States or consortia of States to establish or operate a coordinated public health situational awareness system for regional or Statewide early detection of, rapid response to, and management of potentially catastrophic infectious disease outbreaks and public health emergencies, in collaboration with appropriate public health agencies, environmental health agencies, sentinel hospitals, clinical laboratories, pharmacies, poison control centers, immunization programs, other health care organizations, and animal health organizations within such States.

(2) Eligibility

To be eligible to receive a grant under paragraph (1), the State or consortium of States shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require, including an assurance that the State or consortium of States will submit to the Secretary-

(A) reports of such deidentified data, information, and metrics as the Secretary may require, in consultation with such State or consortium of States;

(B) a report on the effectiveness of the systems funded under the grant;

(C) a description of the manner in which grant funds will be used to enhance the timelines and comprehensiveness of efforts to detect, respond to, and manage potentially catastrophic infectious disease outbreaks and public health emergencies, including any public-private partnerships or other partnerships entered into to improve such capacity; and

(D) an implementation plan that may include measurable steps to achieve the purposes described in paragraph (1).

(3) Use of funds

A State or consortium of States that receives an award under this subsection-

(A) shall establish, enhance, or operate a coordinated public health situational awareness system for regional or Statewide early detection of, rapid response to, and management of potentially catastrophic infectious disease outbreaks and public health emergencies;

(B) may award grants or contracts to entities described in paragraph (1) within or serving such State to assist such entities in improving the operation of information technology systems, facilitating the secure exchange of data and information, and training personnel to enhance the operation of the system described in subparagraph (A); and

(C) may conduct a pilot program for the development of multi-State telehealth network test beds that build on, enhance, and securely link existing State and local telehealth programs to prepare for, monitor, respond to, and manage the events of public health emergencies, facilitate coordination and communication among medical, public health, and emergency response agencies, and provide medical services through telehealth initiatives within the States that are involved in such a multi-State telehealth network test bed.

(4) Limitation

Information technology systems acquired or implemented using grants awarded under this section must be compliant with-

(A) interoperability and other technological standards, as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) data collection and reporting requirements for the network described in subsection (c).

(5) Technical assistance

The Secretary may provide technical assistance to States, localities, Tribes, and territories or a consortium of States, localities, Tribes, and territories receiving an award under this subsection regarding interoperability and the technical standards set forth by the Secretary.

(6) Non-duplication of effort

The Secretary shall ensure that activities carried out under an award under this subsection do not unnecessarily duplicate efforts of other agencies and offices within the Department of Health and Human Services.

(e) Personnel authorities

(1) Specially qualified personnel

In addition to any other personnel authorities, to carry out subsections (b) and (c), the Secretary may-

(A) appoint highly qualified individuals to scientific or professional positions at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, not to exceed 30 such employees at any time (specific to positions authorized by this subsection), with expertise in capabilities relevant to biosurveillance and situational awareness, such as experts in informatics and data analytics (including experts in prediction, modeling, or forecasting), and other related scientific or technical fields; and

(B) compensate individuals appointed under subparagraph (A) in the same manner and subject to the same terms and conditions in which individuals appointed under 9903 2 of title 5 are compensated, without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates.

(2) Limitations

The Secretary shall exercise the authority under paragraph (1) in a manner that is consistent with the limitations described in section 247d–6a(e)(2) of this title.

(f) Timeline

The Secretary shall accomplish the purposes under subsections (b) and (c) no later than September 30, 2023, and shall provide a justification to the congressional committees of jurisdiction for any missed or delayed implementation of measurable steps identified under subsection (c)(6)(A)(iii).

(g) Independent evaluation

Not later than 3 years after June 24, 2019, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct an independent evaluation and submit to the Secretary and the congressional committees of jurisdiction a report concerning the activities conducted under subsections (b) and (c), and provide recommendations, as applicable and appropriate, on necessary improvements to the biosurveillance and situational awareness network.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated-

(1) to carry out subsection (a), $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2022 and 2023; and

(2) to carry out subsections (b), (c), and (d), $136,800,000 for each of fiscal years 2022 and 2023.

(i) Definition

For purposes of this section the term "biosurveillance" means the process of gathering near real-time biological data that relates to human and zoonotic disease activity and threats to human or animal health, in order to achieve early warning and identification of such health threats, early detection and prompt ongoing tracking of health events, and overall situational awareness of disease activity.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title III, §319D, as added Pub. L. 106–505, title I, §102, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2318 ; amended Pub. L. 107–188, title I, §103, June 12, 2002, 116 Stat. 603 ; Pub. L. 109–417, title II, §§202, 204(b)(2), Dec. 19, 2006, 120 Stat. 2845 , 2851; Pub. L. 113–5, title II, §204(a), Mar. 13, 2013, 127 Stat. 177 ; Pub. L. 116–22, title II, §205(a), (b), June 24, 2019, 133 Stat. 918 , 924; Pub. L. 117–328, div. FF, title II, §2211, Dec. 29, 2022, 136 Stat. 5729 .)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2022-Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(8), substituted "Tribal" for "tribal" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(1)(A), substituted "emergencies, by" for "emergencies. Activities that may be carried out under the preceding sentence include" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(1)(B), inserted ", infectious disease outbreaks," after "bioterrorism".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(2)(A)(i)(I), substituted ", local, and Tribal" for ", and local".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(2)(A)(i)(II)–(iii), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: "any other entities determined appropriate by the Secretary."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(2)(B), inserted ", deidentified" before "information" and "The Secretary shall ensure that the activities carried out pursuant to the previous sentence are conducted in a manner that protects personal privacy, to the extent required by applicable Federal and State information privacy or security law, at a minimum." at end.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(A), inserted "modernize," after "establish,", "that is deidentified, as applicable," after "share data and information", ", to the extent practicable" after "interoperability", and "The Secretary shall ensure that the activities carried out pursuant to this paragraph are conducted in a manner that protects personal privacy, to the extent required by applicable Federal and State information privacy or security law, at a minimum." at end.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(v). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(B)(i), struck out cl. (v) which read as follows: "such other sources as the Secretary may deem appropriate."

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(B)(ii), inserted ", and make recommendations to improve the quality of data collected pursuant to subparagraph (A) to ensure complete, accurate, and timely sharing of such data, as appropriate, across such elements as described in subparagraph (A)" after "under subparagraph (A)".

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(i)(I), substituted ", operating, and updating, as appropriate," for "and operating" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(i)(II), inserted "that is deidentified, as applicable," after "analyses" and "in accordance with applicable Federal and State privacy and security law" after "agencies".

Subsec. (c)(5)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(i)(III)–(V), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(i). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(ii)(I), inserted "and 180 days after December 29, 2022," after "June 24, 2019,".

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(ii)(II), substituted "experts in State-based public health data systems; experts in standards and implementation specifications, including transaction standards; and experts in privacy and data security" for "and other representatives as the Secretary determines appropriate".

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iii)(IV). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(ii)(III)(aa), inserted ", including existing public health data systems" after "interoperability".

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iii)(VII) to (IX). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(C)(ii)(III)(bb)–(dd), added subcls. (VII) to (IX).

Subsec. (c)(6)(A). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(D)(i), inserted "and every 5 years thereafter," after "June 24, 2019," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(6)(A)(iii)(V), (VI). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(D)(ii), added subcls. (V) and (VI).

Subsec. (c)(6)(A)(v). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(D)(iv), substituted ", including a description of how such steps will further the goals of the network, consistent with paragraph (1); and" for period at end.

Subsec. (c)(6)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(D)(iii), (v), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(3)(E), added par. (9).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(4)(A)(i), inserted "deidentified" before "data, information" and ", in consultation with such State or consortium of States" after "require".

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(4)(A)(ii), inserted ", including any public-private partnerships or other partnerships entered into to improve such capacity" after "emergencies".

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(4)(B), added par. (6).

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(5), (6), redesignated subsecs. (f) to (h) as (e) to (g), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (e) which related to telehealth enhancements for emergency response.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(7), added subsec. (h) and struck out former subsec. (h). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section, $161,800,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023."

Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(6), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h).

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 117–328, §2211(6), redesignated subsecs. (i) and (j) as (h) and (i), respectively.

2019-Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(1), substituted "Facilities and capacities of" for "Revitalizing" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(2)(A), substituted "In general" for "Facilities; capacities" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(2)(B), substituted ", improved, and appropriately maintained" for "and improved".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(2)(C), substituted "expand, improve, enhance, and appropriately maintain" for "expand, enhance, and improve" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(2)(D), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(3)(A), substituted "Establishment of systems of public health" for "National" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(3)(B), inserted "immunization information systems," after "centers,".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(3)(C), inserted "develop a plan to, and" after "The Secretary shall" and "and in a form readily usable for analytical approaches" after "in a secure manner".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(3)(D), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than one year after June 12, 2002, the Secretary, in cooperation with health care providers and State and local public health officials, shall establish any additional technical and reporting standards (including standards for interoperability) for networks under paragraph (1) and update such standards as necessary."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(A), substituted "The Secretary" for "Not later than 2 years after March 13, 2013, the Secretary" and "such interoperability" for "such connectivity" and inserted ", and improve as applicable and appropriate," after "shall establish" and a comma after "detection of".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(B), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) related to a coordinated strategy and an accompanying implementation plan.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(C), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and inserted heading; redesignated former subpars. (A) to (E) as cls. (i) to (v), respectively, of subpar. (A) and realigned margins; in cl. (iv), inserted "immunization information systems," after "poison control," and substituted ", clinical laboratories, and public environmental health agencies" for "and clinical laboratories"; and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(D)(i), (ii), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, redesignated former subpars. (A) to (D) as (i) to (iv), respectively, of subpar. (A) and realigned margins.

Subsec. (c)(5)(A)(i). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(D)(iv)(I), substituted "as adopted" for "as determined" and inserted "and the National Institute of Standards and Technology" after "Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology".

Subsec. (c)(5)(A)(v). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(D)(iv)(II)–(IV), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(D)(iii), added subpar. (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated cl. (ii) of subpar. (A).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(F), added par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(E), redesignated par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (c)(7)(A). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(G)(i), inserted "(taking into account zoonotic disease, including gaps in scientific understanding of the interactions between human, animal, and environmental health)" after "human health".

Subsec. (c)(7)(B). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(G)(ii), inserted "and gaps in surveillance programs" after "surveillance programs" and substituted "zoonotic;" for "zoonotic; and".

Subsec. (c)(7)(C). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(G)(iii), inserted ", animal health organizations related to zoonotic disease," after "health care entities" and substituted "activities; and" for "activities."

Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(G)(iv), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(4)(H), added par. (8).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(5)(A), inserted "environmental health agencies," after "public health agencies," and "immunization programs," after "poison control centers,".

Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(5)(B), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(5)(C), added par. (5) and struck out former par. (5) which required an independent evaluation and report from the Government Accountability Office no later than 3 years after Mar. 13, 2013.

Subsecs. (f) to (h). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(7), added subsecs. (f) to (h). Former subsecs. (f) and (g) redesignated (i) and (j), respectively.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(6), (b), redesignated subsec. (f) as (i) and substituted "$161,800,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023" for "$138,300,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 116–22, §205(a)(6), redesignated subsec. (g) as (j).

2013-Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(1)(A), inserted "poison control centers," after "hospitals,".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(1)(B), inserted ", allowing for coordination to maximize all-hazards medical and public health preparedness and response and to minimize duplication of effort" before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(1)(C), inserted "and update such standards as necessary" before period at end.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(4)(A), substituted "Modernizing public health situational awareness and biosurveillance" for "Public health situational awareness" in heading.

Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 2002 through 2006.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(4)(B), substituted "March 13, 2013" for "December 19, 2006" and inserted ", novel emerging threats," after "disease outbreaks".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(4)(C), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than 180 days after December 19, 2006, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress, a strategic plan that demonstrates the steps the Secretary will undertake to develop, implement, and evaluate the network described in paragraph (1), utilizing the elements described in paragraph (3)."

Subsec. (c)(3)(D). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(4)(D), inserted "community health centers, health centers" after "of poison control,".

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(4)(E), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "utilize applicable interoperability standards as determined by the Secretary through a joint public and private sector process;".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(4)(F), added par. (6).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (d)(1), (4)(B). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(5)(A), (B), substituted "subsection (c)" for "subsection (d)".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(5)(C), substituted "3 years after March 13, 2013" for "4 years after December 19, 2006" and "subsection (c)" for "subsection (d)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(3), (6), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and substituted "$138,300,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "such sums as may be necessary in each of fiscal years 2007 through 2011". Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 113–5, §204(a)(7), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (f).

2006-Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–417, §202(1), inserted "domestically and abroad" after "public health threats".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 109–417, §204(b)(2), struck out ", taking into account evaluations under section 247d–2(a) of this title," after "The Secretary" in introductory provisions.

Subsecs. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 109–417, §202(2), added subsecs. (d) to (g).

2002-Pub. L. 107–188 reenacted section catchline without change and amended text generally, substituting detailed provisions relating to facilities, capacities, and national communications and surveillance networks for provisions relating to findings of need for secure and modern facilities.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Working Capital Fund

Pub. L. 113–76, div. H, title II, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 368 , provided in part: "That to facilitate the implementation of the permanent Working Capital Fund ('WCF') authorized under this heading [cdc-wide activities and program support] in division F of Public Law 112–74 [see note below], on or after enactment of this Act [Jan. 17, 2014], unobligated balances of amounts appropriated for business services for fiscal year 2013 shall be transferred to the WCF: Provided further, That on or after enactment of this Act, CDC shall transfer amounts available for business services to other CDC appropriations consistent with the benefit each appropriation received from the business services appropriation in fiscal year 2013: Provided further, That once the WCF is implemented in fiscal year 2014, assets purchased in any prior fiscal year with funds appropriated for or reimbursed to business services may be transferred to the WCF and customers billed for depreciation of those assets: Provided further, That CDC shall, consistent with the authorities provided in 42 U.S.C. 231, ensure that the WCF is used only for administrative support services and not for programmatic activities: Provided further, That CDC shall notify the Committees on Appropriations of the House of Representatives and the Senate not later than 15 days prior to any transfers made with funds provided under this heading."

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation act:

Pub. L. 113–6, div. F, title V, §1507, Mar. 26, 2013, 127 Stat. 423 .

Pub. L. 112–74, div. F, title II, Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1070 , provided in part: "That CDC [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] may establish a Working Capital Fund, with the authorities equivalent to those provided in 42 U.S.C. 231, to improve the provision of supplies and service."

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "section".