[USC02] REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 3 OF 1946
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REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 3 OF 1946
From Title 5-AppendixREORGANIZATION PLANS

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 3 OF 1946

Eff. July 16, 1946, 11 F.R. 7875, 60 Stat. 1097, by act Dec. 20, 1945, ch. 582, 59 Stat. 613 , as amended Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1963, eff. July 27, 1963, 28 F.R. 7659, 77 Stat. 869

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, May 16, 1946, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1945, approved December 20, 1945.

PART I. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

Section 101. Functions Transferred to the United States Coast Guard

(a) There are hereby transferred to the Commandant of the Coast Guard those functions of the bureau, offices, and boards specified in the first sentence of section 104 of this plan, and of the Secretary of Commerce, which pertain to approval of plans for the construction, repair, and alteration of vessels; approval of materials, equipment, and appliances; classification of vessels; inspection of vessels and their equipment and appliances; issuance of certificates of inspection, and of permits indicating the approval of vessels for operations which may be hazardous to life or property; administration of load line requirements; enforcement of other provisions for the safety of life and property on vessels; licensing and certificating of officers, pilots, and seamen; suspension and revocation of licenses and certificates; investigation of marine casualties; enforcement of manning requirements, citizenship requirements, and requirements for the mustering and drilling of crews, control of logbooks; shipment, discharge, protection, and welfare of merchant seamen; enforcement of duties of shipowners and officers after accidents; promulgation and enforcement of rules for lights, signals, speed, steering, sailing, passing, anchorage, movement, and towlines of vessels and lights and signals on bridges; numbering of undocumented vessels; prescription and enforcement of regulations for outfitting and operation of motorboats; licensing of motorboat operators; regulation of regattas and marine parades; all other functions of such bureau, offices, and boards which are not specified in section 102 of this plan: and all other functions of the Secretary of Commerce pertaining to those functions of the agencies abolished under section 104 of this plan which are not specified in section 102 of this plan, including the remission and mitigation of fines, penalties, and forfeitures incurred under the laws governing these functions and those incurred under the act of December 17, 1941, 55 Stat. 808, as amended.

(b) The functions relating to the award of numbers to undocumented vessels vested by law in the collectors of customs are hereby transferred to the Commandant of the Coast Guard.

Sec. 102. Functions Transferred to the Bureau of Customs

There are hereby transferred to the Commissioner of Customs those functions of the bureau, offices, and boards specified in the first sentence of section 104 of this plan, and of the Secretary of Commerce, which pertain to registry, enrollment, and licensing of vessels, including the issuance of commissions to yachts, the assignment of signal letters, and the preparation of all reports and publications in connection therewith; measurement of vessels, administration of tonnage duties, and collection of tolls; entry and clearance of vessels and aircraft, regulation of vessels in the coasting and fishing trades, and limitation of the use of foreign vessels in waters under the jurisdiction of the United States; recording of sales, conveyances, and mortgages of vessels; protection of steerage passengers; all other functions of such bureau, offices, and boards which were performed by the Bureau of Customs on behalf thereof immediately prior to the effective date of Executive Order No. 9083 of February 28, 1942 (7 F.R. 1609); and the power to remit and mitigate fines, penalties, and forfeitures incurred under the laws governing these functions.

Sec. 103. Powers of the Secretary of the Treasury

The functions transferred by sections 101 and 102 of this plan may be performed through such officers and employees of the United States Coast Guard and the Bureau of Customs, respectively, as may be designated by the Commandant of the Coast Guard and the Commissioner of Customs, respectively, and shall be performed subject to the direction and control of the Secretary of the Treasury except as otherwise required by law with respect to the United States Coast Guard whenever it operates as a part of the Navy.

Sec. 104. Abolition of Agencies

The Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation, the office of the director thereof, the offices of supervising inspectors, principal traveling inspectors, local inspectors, assistant inspectors, shipping commissioners, deputy shipping commissioners, and the board of supervising inspectors, the boards of local inspectors, the marine casualty investigation board, and the marine boards are hereby abolished. The Secretary of the Treasury shall provide for winding up those affairs of the said abolished agencies which are not otherwise disposed of herein.

PART II. DEPARTMENT OF WAR AND DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY

Section 201. Functions With Respect to Certain Insane Persons

(a) The functions of St. Elizabeths Hospital and the Superintendent thereof, and of the Federal Security Agency and the Federal Security Administrator, with respect to the care, treatment, and custody of insane persons as provided in section 4843 of the Revised Statutes (24 U.S.C. 191) are hereby transferred or abolished as follows:

(1) Functions with respect to insane persons belonging to the Army or falling, by reason of employment or service in the Army, within any of the categories enumerated in said section, are transferred to the Secretary of War [now the Secretary of the Army] and shall be performed by the Secretary or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of War [now the Department of the Army] as he may designate.

(2) Functions with respect to insane persons belonging to the Navy or falling, by reason of prior service in the Navy, within any of the categories enumerated in said section, are transferred to the Secretary of the Navy and shall be performed by the Secretary or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of the Navy as he may designate. (For the purposes of this subparagraph (2), the Marine Corps but not the Coast Guard is included in the Navy.)

(3) Functions with respect to insane persons belonging to the Coast Guard are abolished.

(b) Nothing in subsection (a) of this section shall affect the functions and authority of St. Elizabeths Hospital, the Superintendent thereof, the Federal Security Agency, or the Federal Security Administrator, with respect to any person heretofore admitted to St. Elizabeths Hospital and a patient therein on the effective date of this plan under the provisions of section 4843 of the Revised Statutes [24 U.S.C. 191], or the functions and authority of said officers and agencies or of the Public Health Service with respect to Coast Guard members as beneficiaries of the Public Health Service, as provided by section 504 of the Public Health Service Act (58 Stat. 710, 42 U.S.C. 222).

PART III. DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY

Section 301. Hydrographic Office and Naval Observatory

The Hydrographic Office and the Naval Observatory, together with their respective functions, are hereby transferred from the Bureau of Naval Personnel, Department of the Navy, to the Chief of Naval Operations, and shall be administered, subject to the direction and control of the Secretary of the Navy, under the Chief of Naval Operations.

Sec. 302. Supply Department of the United States Marine Corps

The Paymaster's Department of the United States Marine Corps and the Quartermaster's Department of the United States Marine Corps, and the functions of such departments, are hereby consolidated to form a single new agency, which shall be known as the Supply Department of the United States Marine Corps, and at the head of which there shall be the Quartermaster General of the Marine Corps. The office and title of "The Paymaster General of the Marine Corps," provided for in the Act of March 24, 1944 (58 Stat. 121) are hereby abolished.

PART IV. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR

Section 401. Certain Functions With Respect to the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library

[Superseded. Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1963, eff. July 27, 1963, 28 F.R. 7659, 77 Stat. 869. Section transferred to the Secretary of the Interior the functions of the Commissioner of Public Buildings and the Archivist of the United States under sections 206 and 207, respectively, of the Act of July 18, 1939, 53 Stat. 1062, relating to care and maintenance of buildings and collection of fees from visitors.]

Sec. 402. Functions Relating to Mineral Deposits in Certain Lands

The functions of the Secretary of Agriculture and the Department of Agriculture with respect to the uses of mineral deposits in certain lands pursuant to the provisions of the Act of March 4, 1917 (39 Stat. 1134, 1150, 16 U.S.C. 520), Title II of the National Industrial Recovery Act of June 16, 1933 (48 Stat. 195, 200, 202, 205, [former] 40 U.S.C. 401, 403(a) and 408), the 1935 Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of April 8, 1935 (48 Stat. 115, 118), section 55 of Title I of the Act of August 24, 1935 (49 Stat. 750, 781), and the Act of July 22, 1937 (50 Stat. 522, 525, 530), as amended July 28, 1942 (56 Stat. 725, 7 U.S.C. 1011(c) and 1018), are hereby transferred to the Secretary of the Interior and shall be performed by him or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of the Interior as he may designate: Provided, That mineral development on such lands shall be authorized by the Secretary of the Interior only when he is advised by the Secretary of Agriculture that such development will not interfere with the primary purposes for which the land was acquired and only in accordance with such conditions as may be specified by the Secretary of Agriculture in order to protect such purposes. The provisions of law governing the crediting and distribution of revenues derived from the said lands shall be applicable to revenues derived in connection with the functions transferred by this section. To the extent necessary in connection with the performance of the functions transferred by this section, the Secretary of the Interior and his representatives shall have access to the title records of the Department of Agriculture relating to the lands affected by this section.

Sec. 403. Bureau of Land Management

(a) The functions of the General Land Office and of the Grazing Service in the Department of the Interior are hereby consolidated to form a new agency in the Department of the Interior to be known as the Bureau of Land Management. The functions of the other agencies named in subsection (d) of this section are hereby transferred to the Secretary of the Interior.

(b) There shall be at the head of such Bureau a Director of the Bureau of Land Management, who shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior under the classified civil service, who shall receive a salary at the rate of $10,000 per annum, and who shall perform such duties as the Secretary of the Interior shall designate.

(c) There shall be in the Bureau of Land Management an Associate Director of the Bureau of Land Management and so many Assistant Directors of the Bureau of Land Management as may be necessary, who shall be appointed by the Secretary of the Interior under the classified civil service and subject to the Classification Act of 1923, as amended, and who shall perform such duties as the Secretary of the Interior may prescribe.

(d) The General Land Office, the Grazing Service, the offices of Commissioner of the General Land Office, Assistant Commissioner of the General Land Office, Director of the Grazing Service, all Assistant Directors of the Grazing Service, all registers of the district land offices, and United States Supervisor of Surveys, together with the Field Surveying Service now known as the Cadastral Engineering Service, are hereby abolished.

(e) The Bureau of Land Management and its functions shall be administered subject to the direction and control of the Secretary of the Interior, and the functions transferred to the Secretary by subsection (a) of this section shall be performed by the Secretary or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of the Interior as he may designate.

PART V. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Section 501. Functions of Certain Agencies of the Department of Agriculture

The following functions are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Agriculture and shall be performed by him or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of Agriculture as he shall designate:

(a) All functions of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the Surplus Marketing Administration and of the respective heads of such Administrations.

(b) The administration of the programs of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation and the Commodity Credit Corporation.

PART VI. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE

Section 601. Certain Functions of National Bureau of Standards

The following functions are hereby transferred to the Secretary of Commerce and shall be performed, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of Commerce as he may designate:

(a) Those functions of the National Bureau of Standards under section 2 of the Act of March 3, 1901 (31 Stat. 1449) [15 U.S.C. 272] which are now performed by the Division of Commercial Standards of said Bureau, namely, (1) to assist, coordinate, and cooperate with groups of consumers, distributors or producers, technical organizations, and other persons, in the voluntary establishment, maintenance, recording, publishing, and promoting of commercial standards as a national and internationally recognized basis for testing, grading, labeling, marketing, guaranteeing, or accepting staple, manufactured commodities moving in daily domestic and foreign trade; and (2) to assist in the development of Federal purchase standards specifications and in providing information to the public and the Government of such standards and specifications.

(b) Those functions of said Bureau under said section 2 which are now performed by the Division of Simplified Trade and Practices of said Bureau, namely, to assist, coordinate, and cooperate with individuals and groups of producers, distributors and users in establishing, recording, publishing, and promoting a Nation-wide program for the elimination of avoidable waste through the formulation of simplified trade practice recommendations which identify and list the sizes, types, dimensions, and varieties of products that are in national demand in the country, including but not limited to simplified trade practice recommendations concerning the following commodities: Wood, textiles, paper and rubber products, metal and mechanical products, containers and miscellaneous products, materials handling equipment, ceramic products, electrical products, construction materials, and metal and woodworking tools.

(c) So much of the functions of the Director of said Bureau as relates to the foregoing activities.

[References to National Bureau of Standards deemed to refer to National Institute of Standards and Technology pursuant to section 5115(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a Change of Name note under 15 U.S.C. 271.]

PART VII. NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD

Section 701. Strike Ballots Under War Labor Disputes Act

The functions of the National Labor Relations Board under section 8 of the War Labor Disputes Act (57 Stat. 162, 167, ch. 144) [former section 1508 of Title 50, Appendix] with respect to taking secret ballots of employees on the question of an interruption of war production are hereby abolished.

PART VIII. SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

Section 801. Canal Zone Biological Area

The functions of the Board of Directors of the Canal Zone Biological Area (which Board is provided for in the Act of July 2, 1940, 54 Stat. 724, ch. 516) [20 U.S.C. 79 et seq.], together with the functions of the executive officer of such Board, are hereby transferred to the Smithsonian Institution. The said Board of Directors and the office of the said executive officer are hereby abolished.

PART IX. UNITED STATES EMPLOYMENT SERVICE

Section 901. Placement Functions Under Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

There is hereby transferred to the United States Employment Service so much of the functions of the Selective Service System and of the Director of Selective Service under section 8(g) of the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940 (54 Stat. 890, ch. 720) [former section 308(g) of Title 50, Appendix] as relates to aiding persons who have satisfactorily completed any period of active duty or of training and service under the said act in securing positions other than the positions held by them prior to said period.

PART X. RECORDS, PROPERTY, PERSONNEL, AND FUNDS

Section 1001. Transfer of Records, Property, Personnel, and Funds

There are hereby transferred to the respective agencies in which functions are vested pursuant to the provisions of this plan, to be used, employed, and expended in connection with such functions, respectively, or in connection with winding up the outstanding affairs of agencies abolished by this plan, (1) the records and property now being used or held in connection with such functions, (2) the personnel employed in connection with such functions, and (3) the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds available or to be made available for use in connection with such functions.

Sec. 1002. Disposition of Excess Personnel

Any of the personnel transferred under this plan which the transferee agency shall find to be in excess of the personnel necessary for the administration of the functions transferred to such agency by such plan shall be retransferred under existing law to other positions in the Government or separated from the service.

Sec. 1003. Dispositions by Director of the Bureau of the Budget

Such further measures and dispositions as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget shall determine to be necessary in order to effectuate the provisions of this part or in order to wind up the outstanding affairs relating to agencies or functions abolished by this plan shall be carried out in such manner as the Director may direct and by such agencies as he may designate.

Message to Congress

To the Congress of the United States:

I transmit herewith Reorganization Plan No. 3 of 1946, prepared in accordance with the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1945.

The plan contains reorganizations affecting a number of departments and establishments. Some continue on a permanent basis changes made by Executive order under authority of the First War Powers Act. A few make adjustments in the distribution of functions among agencies. The remainder deal with problems of organization within individual agencies. All are concerned with improving and simplifying particular phases of Government administration.

Each proposal is explained in more detail under the appropriate heading below.

I have found, after investigation, that each reorganization contained in the plan is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2(a) of the Reorganization Act of 1945.

department of the treasury

The functions of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation were transferred from the Department of Commerce to the Coast Guard and the Bureau of Customs in 1942 by Executive order under the First War Powers Act. This arrangement has been proved successful by the experience of the past 4 years. Part I of the reorganization plan continues the arrangement on a permanent basis.

united states coast guard

The principal functions of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation were those of the inspection of vessels and their equipment, the licensing and certificating of officers and seamen, and related functions designed to safeguard the safety of life and property at sea. Thus these functions are related to the regular activities and general purposes of the Coast Guard. The Coast Guard administered them successfully during the tremendous expansion of wartime shipping, by virtue of improvements in organization and program, many of which ought to be continued.

The plan also transfers to the Coast Guard the functions of the collectors of customs relating to the award of numbers to undocumented vessels. These functions, too, were temporarily transferred to the Coast Guard in 1942.

bureau of customs

The plan transfers to the Commissioner of Customs the functions of the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and the Secretary of Commerce, relating to the documentation of vessels, measurement of vessels, administration of tonnage tax and tolls, entry and clearance of vessels and aircraft, regulation of coastwise trade and fisheries, recording of conveyances and mortgages of vessels, and protection of steerage passengers. These functions have always been performed at the ports by the customs service, although legal responsibility for their supervision was vested in the Bureau of Marine Inspection and Navigation and the Secretary of Commerce until transferred temporarily to the Commissioner of Customs under the wartime reorganization power.

The proposed transfer will permit more efficient administration by ending divided responsibility.

department of war and department of the navy

Functions With Respect to Certain Insane Persons

Prior to World War I practically all mental patients for whom the Federal Government was legally obligated to provide hospital care and treatment, including personnel of the armed forces, were hospitalized in St. Elizabeths Hospital, Washington, D. C. In addition, this hospital served as the mental hospital for the District of Columbia government. Following World War I, the responsibility for hospital care of mentally ill war veterans was assigned to the Veterans' Administration. Somewhat later, specialized hospital facilities were provided by the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice to enable that agency to care for prisoners suffering from mental disorders.

With the growth in the population of the District of Columbia and the wartime expansion of the armed forces, the facilities of St. Elizabeths Hospital became inadequate. The War Department therefore established its own mental hospitals at the outset of World War II. Furthermore it became necessary a year ago for the Navy Department to discontinue the use of St. Elizabeths and to assume the responsibility for the care of its mental patients.

Since the return of the Coast Guard to the Treasury Department, the Public Health Service now provides care in its mental hospitals for personnel of the Coast Guard in accordance with the basic responsibility delegated to it in the Public Health Service Code enacted in 1944. The plan abolishes the functions of St. Elizabeths Hospital with respect to insane persons belonging to the Coast Guard which are provided for by section 4843 of the Revised Statutes [24 U.S.C. 191].

Responsibility for the care of mental patients has been allocated on the basis of the four broad categories of beneficiaries, namely, (1) veterans, to be cared for by the Veterans' Administration; (2) military and naval personnel, to be cared for by the War and Navy Departments; (3) prisoners, for whom the Department of Justice will be responsible; and (4) other civilians, to be cared for by the Federal Security Agency. The reorganization plan, in order to carry out this policy, provides for the transfer or abolition of certain functions and legal responsibilities now resting with the Federal Security Administrator and Superintendent of St. Elizabeths Hospital.

navy department

Hydrographic Office and Naval Observatory

The plan transfers the Hydrographic Office and the Naval Observatory from the Bureau of Naval Personnel to the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations. The plan would confirm and make permanent the action taken in 1942 by Executive Order No. 9126. Under the First War Powers Act.

The functions performed by both the Hydrographic Office and the Naval Observatory relate primarily to operational matters and thus are more appropriately placed in the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations than in the Bureau of Naval Personnel. This fact was recognized in the realinement of naval functions at the outbreak of the war. The plan merely confirms an organizational relationship which has existed successfully for the past 4 years.

Supply Department of the United States Marine Corps

The plan consolidates the Paymaster's Department and the Quartermaster's Department of the United States Marine Corps into a single Supply Department. This consolidation will establish in the Marine Corps an integrated supply organization which parallels that of the Navy Department's Bureau of Supplies and Accounts.

The consolidation will make possible a more efficient and more economical organization of the companion functions of supply and disbursement, eliminating the present handling of related items by two separate departments of the Corps.

department of the interior

The Franklin D. Roosevelt Library at Hyde Park

At the present time, the National Park Service, the Public Buildings Administration, and the Archivist of the United States all perform "housekeeping" functions at the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and home at Hyde Park. The plan unifies in the National Park Service responsibility for activities of this character at Hyde Park-that is, the maintenance and protection of buildings and grounds, the collection of fees, and the handling of traffic and visitors. Because of its wide experience in the administration of historic sites, the National Park Service is the logical agency to assume the combined functions.

Transfer of these functions does not affect the responsibility of the Archivist for the contents and professional services of the library proper. It also does not affect the present disposition of the receipts, which is provided by law.

Functions Relating to Mineral Deposits in Certain Lands

The plan transfers to the Department of the Interior jurisdiction over mineral deposits on lands held by the Department of Agriculture.

The Department of the Interior now administers the mining and mineral leasing laws on various areas of the public lands, including those national forests established on parts of the original public domain. The Department of Agriculture, on the other hand, has jurisdiction with respect to mineral deposits on (1) forest lands acquired under the Weeks Act, (2) lands acquired in connection with the rural rehabilitation program, and (3) lands acquired by the Department as a part of the Government's effort to retire submarginal lands.

Accordingly this reorganization plan provides that these mineral deposits on lands of the Department of Agriculture will be administered by the Department of the Interior, which already has the bulk of the Federal Government's mineral leasing program.

The plan further provides that the administration of mineral leasing on these lands under the jurisdiction of the Department of Agriculture will be carried on subject to limitations necessary to protect the surface uses for which these lands were primarily acquired.

Bureau of Land Management

The plan consolidates the General Land Office and the Grazing Service of the Department of the Interior into a Bureau of Land Management.

The General Land Office and the Grazing Service now divide responsibility for the major portion of the multiple-use federally owned lands now held by the Department of the Interior. The lands under jurisdiction of the two agencies are comparable in character and in use. In some functions the two agencies employ the same type of personnel and use the same techniques. Other functions are divided between the agencies, so that both are engaged in management of various aspects of the same land. Consolidating these two agencies will permit the development of uniform policies and the integration of two organizations whose responsibilities now overlap.

Integration of the activities of the two agencies will make possible greater utilization and thus more economic use of expert skills. The same practical experience embraced in range administration on public lands in grazing districts will be available for public lands outside the districts.

Utilization of lands within grazing districts for nongrazing purposes will be subject to only one classification examination, rather than dual examination as is now necessary. Economy will be possible in the construction of range improvements, wherever feasible, to serve lands both in and out of districts. Legal procedures, such as adjudication of issues relating to licenses and leases, hearings on appeal from administrative decisions, and the processing of trespass cases, will benefit from unified administration and handling.

In such activities as fire protection, soil and moisture conservation, management of public lands under agreement with other agencies (e.g., Bureau of Reclamation), range surveys, maintenance and improvement of stock driveways, and stabilization of range use on all public domain, the benefits of consolidation will become increasingly apparent. Further, records relating to grazing lands can be concentrated in fewer field offices and hence administered more effectively.

While the establishment of a new Bureau of Land Management under a Director involves the abolition of the Commissioner and Assistant Commissioners of the General Land Office, the Director and Assistant Directors of Grazing, the Registers of District Land Offices, and the United States Supervisor of Surveys, the statutory functions now discharged by these officers are in no way modified. This plan will place final responsibility for these functions in the Secretary of the Interior and make him responsible for their performance in coordination with the other land activities of his Department. Officers whose offices are specifically abolished, but whose experience will make them valuable to the Department, should be available for appointment in the new Bureau.

I have found and declare that by reason of the reorganization made by the plan the responsibilities and duties of the Bureau of Land Management are of such nature as to require the inclusion in the plan of provisions for the appointment and compensation of a Director, an Associate Director, and Assistant Directors.

department of agriculture

Functions of Certain Agencies of the Department of Agriculture

To enable the Department of Agriculture to meet its responsibilities for food production and distribution during the war, there was early and continuing coordination of its programs directly concerned with these phases of the food problem. Beginning with Executive Order No. 9069 of February 23, 1942, those programs and agencies dealing with food production and distribution were gradually consolidated by a series of Executive orders issued under the authority of the First War Powers Act. By Executive Order No. 9334 of April 19, 1943, they were all grouped into a War Food Administration, under a War Food Administrator.

When the fighting was drawing to a close and the emergency purposes of the War Food Administration had been largely accomplished, this Administration was terminated by Executive Order No. 9577 of June 29, 1945, and its functions and agencies were transferred back to the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Agriculture. Executive Order No. 9577 also authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to organize and administer the transferred functions and agencies in the manner which he deemed best.

Under this authority the Secretary established the Production and Marketing Administration in August 1945. Into this Administration he consolidated the functions of many of the production and marketing agencies which were transferred back from the War Food Administration. Included were the functions of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration and the Surplus Marketing Administration and the administration of the programs of the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation and the Commodity Credit Corporation.

The plan transfers these functions to the Secretary of Agriculture, in order to permit him to continue the consolidation already effected in the Production and Marketing Administration. This provision makes it possible to maintain the close coordination and integration of food-production and distribution programs, with the resulting benefits that were achieved during the war. It also provides the Secretary with the necessary flexibility to make adjustments in the coordination and administration of these programs to meet changing conditions and new problems, a flexibility which he particularly needs at this period of acute food shortages throughout the world.

department of commerce

Certain Functions of National Bureau of Standards

The plan transfers the functions of two Divisions of the National Bureau of Standards in the Department of Commerce, namely, the Division of Simplified Trade Practices and the Division of Commercial Standards, to the Secretary of Commerce. The transfer will permit the Secretary to reassign these functions to the Office of Domestic Commerce, which is the focal point of the Department's general service functions for American business.

These two Divisions were established as a result of the standardization work initiated in World War I. Both Divisions have followed the same basic procedure of assisting the producers and the consumers of particular products to agree among themselves on certain standards or on a certain limited number of varieties. Each such voluntary agreement is then published by the National Bureau of Standards and, although not compulsory, has tended to become the generally accepted practice in the trade.

Standardization again proved to be an important device for accelerating production in World War II, and industry has shown renewed interest in continuing these wartime conservation and rationalization programs on a voluntary basis in the production of peacetime products.

The desirability of the proposed transfer was emphasized only a few months ago by the report of a committee of prominent businessmen appointed by the Secretary of Commerce to review the entire question of the Government's activities in this field. These studies indicate that two major benefits will result from the transfer.

First, the association of the two Divisions with the National Bureau of Standards has perhaps tended to give the impression in some quarters that voluntary standards and trade practices worked out by industry with the help of these two Divisions are in some sense Government standards which are enforced on the basis of scientific and objective tests. The transfer of these two Divisions to the Department proper would reduce any such misconceptions, and make it clear that these standards and simplified practices are voluntary industry agreements in the making of which the Government acts merely in an advisory capacity.

Second, the other general services of the Department to American business, such as marketing, management, and economic and statistical services, are now concentrated in the Office of Domestic Commerce. The association of these two Divisions with these other services to business will facilitate their work and enable them to make use of the wide industrial and business contacts of the Office of Domestic Commerce.

national labor relations board

Strike Ballots Under the War Labor Disputes Act

The plan abolishes the function of conducting strike ballots which was vested in the National Labor Relations Board by section 8 of the War Labor Disputes Act (57 Stat. 167, ch. 144). Experience indicates that such elections under the act do not serve to reduce the number of strikes and may even aggravate labor difficulties. The Congress has already forbidden the Board to expend any of its appropriations for the current fiscal year for this activity (First Deficiency Appropriation Act of 1946). I believe that the function should now be permanently abolished.

smithsonian institution

Canal Zone Biological Area

The plan transfers responsibility for the Canal Zone Biological Area to the Smithsonian Institution. At present the Canal Zone Biological Area is an independent agency of the Government, having as its function the administration of Barro Colorado Island in Gatun Lake as a tropical wildlife preserve and research laboratory. The Board of Directors of this agency consists of the President of the National Academy of Sciences as Chairman, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, three members of the Cabinet-the Secretaries of War, Interior, and Agriculture-and three biologists.

The transfer will locate this function with comparable and related functions already assigned to the Smithsonian Institution whose staff members have participated since the beginning in developing the island as a research center. It will reduce by one the number of Government agencies. It will relieve three Cabinet members of routine duties not important enough to warrant their personal attention.

Under its existing authority the Smithsonian Institution may constitute an advisory board of biologists and departmental representatives if it finds such action necessary.

united states employment service

Placement Functions Under Selective Training and Service Act of 1940

The plan transfers to the United States Employment Service the functions of the Selective Service System and its Director with respect to assisting ex-servicemen in obtaining new positions. These functions directly overlap the regular placement activities of the United States Employment Service, which is required to provide a special placement service for veterans both by its basic act and by the Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944. The transfer is in line with the policy of the Congress on the placement of veterans as most recently expressed in the 1944 act. The shift will prevent needless duplication of personnel and facilities and will assure the best service to veterans.

Harry S. Truman.      


The White House, May 16, 1946.