[USC02] REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1947
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REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1947
From Title 5-AppendixREORGANIZATION PLANS

REORGANIZATION PLAN NO. 1 OF 1947

12 F.R. 4534, 61 Stat. 951, as amended act June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title VI, §602(a)(1), formerly title V, §502(a)(1), 63 Stat. 399 , redesignated Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(a), (b), 64 Stat. 583 ; Sept. 13, 1982, Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), 96 Stat. 1068 , 1085

Prepared by the President and transmitted to the Senate and the House of Representatives in Congress assembled, May 1, 1947, pursuant to the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1945, approved December 20, 1945.

PART I. PRESIDENT AND DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

Section 101. Functions of the Alien Property Custodian

(a) Except as provided by subsection (b) of this section, all functions vested by law in the Alien Property Custodian or the Office of Alien Property Custodian are transferred to the Attorney General and shall be performed by him or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of Justice as he may designate.

(b) The functions vested by law in the Alien Property Custodian or the Office of Alien Property Custodian with respect to property or interests located in the Philippines or which were so located at the time of vesting in or transfer to an officer or agency of the United States under the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended [50 U.S.C. App. 1 et seq.], are transferred to the President and shall be performed by him or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies as he may designate.

Sec. 102. Approval of Agricultural Marketing Orders

The function of the President with respect to approving determinations of the Secretary of Agriculture in connection with agricultural marketing orders, under the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, as amended (7 U.S.C. 608c(9)), is abolished.

PART II. DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

Sec. 201. Contract Settlement Functions

[Repealed. Pub. L. 97–258, §5(b), Sept. 13, 1982, 96 Stat. 1068 , 1085. Section transferred various contract settlement functions to the Secretary of the Treasury and abolished the Office of Contract Settlement.]

Sec. 202. National Prohibition Act Functions

The functions of the Attorney General and of the Department of Justice with respect to (a) the determination of Internal Revenue taxes and penalties (exclusive of the determination of liability guaranteed by permit bonds) arising out of violations of the National Prohibition Act [see 27 U.S.C. note preceding §1] occurring prior to the repeal of the eighteenth amendment to the Constitution, and (b) the compromise, prior to reference to the Attorney General for suit, of liability for such taxes and penalties, are transferred to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, Department of the Treasury: Provided, That any compromise of such liability shall be effected in accordance with the provisions of section 3761 of the Internal Revenue Code [of 1939] [see 26 U.S.C. 7122]. All files and records of the Department of Justice used primarily in the administration of the functions transferred by the provisions of this section are hereby made available to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue for use in the administration of such functions.

PART III. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE

Sec. 301. Agricultural Research Functions

The functions of the following agencies of the Department of Agriculture, namely, the Bureau of Animal Industry, the Bureau of Dairy Industry, the Bureau of Plant Industry, Soils, and Agricultural Engineering, the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine, the Bureau of Agricultural and Industrial Chemistry, the Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics, the Office of Experiment Stations, and the Agricultural Research Center, together with the functions of the Agricultural Research Administrator, are transferred to the Secretary of Agriculture and shall be performed by the Secretary or, subject to his direction and control, by such officers and agencies of the Department of Agriculture as he may designate.

PART IV. FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION

Sec. 401. Credit Union Functions

The functions of the Farm Credit Administration and the Governor thereof under the Federal Credit Union Act, as amended, together with the functions of the Secretary of Agriculture with respect thereto, are transferred to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation.

PART V. WAR ASSETS ADMINISTRATION

[Secs. 501, 502. Repealed. June 30, 1949, ch. 288, title VI, §602(a)(1), formerly title V, §502(a)(1), 63 Stat. 399 , redesignated Sept. 5, 1950, ch. 849, §6(a), (b), 64 Stat. 583 . Section 501 abolished War Assets Administration and transferred its functions to Surplus Property Administration, which was then renamed the War Assets Administration. Section 502 established position of Associate War Assets Administrator.]

PART VI. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec. 601. Termination of Functions

Nothing contained in this reorganization plan shall be deemed to extend the duration of any function beyond the time when it would otherwise expire as provided by law.

Sec. 602. Transfer of Records, Property, Personnel, and Funds

There are hereby transferred to the respective agencies in which functions are vested pursuant to the provisions of this plan, to be used, employed, and expended in connection with such functions, respectively, or in winding up the affairs of agencies abolished in connection with the transfer of such functions, (1) the records and property now being used or held in connection with such functions, (2) the personnel employed in connection with such functions, and (3) the unexpended balances of appropriations, allocations, or other funds available or to be made available for use in connection with such functions.

Sec. 603. Effective Date

The provisions of this plan shall take effect on July 1, 1947, unless a later date is required by the provisions of the Reorganization Act of 1945.

Message of the President

To the Congress of the United States:

I am transmitting herewith Reorganization Plan No. 1 of 1947. The provisions of this plan are designed to maintain organizational arrangements worked out under authority of title I of the First War Powers Act. The plan has a twofold objective: to provide for more orderly transition from war to peacetime operation and to supplement my previous actions looking toward the termination of wartime legislation.

The First War Powers Act provides that title I-

  shall remain in force during the continuance of the present war and for six months after the termination of the war, or until such earlier time as the Congress by concurrent resolution or the President may designate.

Upon the termination of this title all changes in the organization of activities and agencies effected under its authority expire and the functions revert to their previous locations unless otherwise provided by law.

Altogether nearly 135 Executive orders have been issued in whole or in part under title I of the First War Powers Act. The internal organization of the War and Navy Departments has been drastically overhauled under this authority. Most of the emergency agencies, which played so vital a role in the successful prosecution of the war, were based in whole or in part upon this title. Without the ability, which these provisions afforded, to adjust the machinery of government to changing needs, it would not have been possible to develop the effective, hard-hitting organization which produced victory. The organization of war activities had to be worked out step by step as the war program unfolded and experience pointed the way. That was inevitable. The problems and the functions to be performed were largely new. Conditions changed continually and often radically. Speed of action was essential. But with the aid of title I of the First War Powers Act, it was possible to gear the administrative machinery of the Government to handle the enormous load thrust upon it by the rapidly evolving war program.

Since VJ-day this same authority has been used extensively in demobilizing war agencies and reconverting the governmental structure to peacetime needs. This process has been largely completed. The bulk of temporary activities have ceased, and most of the continuing functions transferred during the war have already been placed in their appropriate peacetime locations.

The organizational adjustments which should be continued are essentially of two types: First, changes in the organization of permanent functions, which have demonstrated their advantage during the war years. Second, transfers of continuing activities which were vested by statute in temporary war agencies but have since been moved by Executive order upon the termination of these agencies.

In most cases the action necessary to maintain organizational gains made under title I of the First War Powers Act can best be taken by the simplified procedure afforded by the Reorganization Act of 1945, the first purpose of which was to facilitate the orderly transition from war to peace. All of the provisions of this plan represent definite improvements in administration. Several are essential steps in demobilizing the war effort. The arrangements they provide for have been reviewed by the Congress in connection with appropriation requests. Since the plan does not change existing organization, savings cannot be claimed for it. However, increased expense and disruption of operations would result if the present organization were terminated and the activities reverted to their former locations.

In addition to the matters dealt with in this reorganization plan and in Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1947, there are several other changes in organization made under title I of the First War Powers Act on which action should be taken before the termination of the title. The proposed legislation for a National Defense Establishment provides for continuing the internal organizational arrangements made in the Army and Navy pursuant to the First War Powers Act. I have on several occasions recommended the creation of a single agency for the administration of housing programs. Since section 5(e) of the Reorganization Act of 1945 may cast some doubt on my authority to assign responsibility for the liquidation of the Smaller War Plants Corporation by reorganization plan, I recommend that the Reconstruction Finance Corporation be authorized by legislation to continue to liquidate the affairs relating to functions transferred to it from the Smaller War Plants Corporation.

It is imperative that title I of the First War Powers Act remain effective until all of these matters have been dealt with. An earlier termination of the title would destroy important advances in organization and impair the ability of the executive branch to administer effectively some of the major programs of the Government.

I have found, after investigation, that each reorganization contained in this plan is necessary to accomplish one or more of the purposes set forth in section 2 (a) of the Reorganization Act of 1945. Each of these reorganizations is explained below.

Functions of the Alien Property Custodian

The reorganization plan provides for the permanent location of the functions vested by statute in the Alien Property Custodian and the Office of Alien Property Custodian. In 1934 the functions of the Alien Property Custodian were transferred to the Department of Justice, where they remained until 1942. Because of the great volume of activity resulting from World War II, a separate Office of Alien Property Custodian was created by Executive Order No. 9095 of March 11, 1942. This Office was terminated by Executive Order No. 9788 of October 14, 1946, and the functions of the Office and of the Alien Property Custodian were transferred to the Attorney General except for those relating to Philippine property. The latter were transferred simultaneously to the Philippine Alien Property Administration established by Executive Order No. 9789.

While the Trading With the Enemy Act, as amended at the beginning of the war, authorized the President to designate the agency or person in which alien property should vest and to change such designations, subsequent legislation has lodged certain functions in the Alien Property Custodian and the Office of Alien Property Custodian. Similarly, though the Philippine Property Act vested in the President the then existing alien property functions as to Philippine property, certain functions affecting such property have since been established which have been assigned by statute to the Alien Property Custodian.

In order to maintain the existing arrangements for the administration of alien property and to avoid the confusion which otherwise would occur on the termination of title I of the First War Powers Act, the reorganization plan transfers to the Attorney General all functions vested by law in the Alien Property Custodian and the Office of Alien Property Custodian except as to Philippine property. The functions relating to Philippine property are transferred to the President, to be performed by such officer or agency as he may designate, thus permitting the continued administration of these functions through the Philippine Alien Property Administration.

Approval of Agricultural Marketing Orders

Section 8c of the Agricultural Marketing Agreements Act of 1937 provides that marketing orders of the Secretary of Agriculture must in certain cases be approved by the President before issuance. In order to relieve the President of an unnecessary burden, the responsibility for approval was delegated to the Economic Stabilization Director during the war, and was formally transferred to him by Executive Order No. 9705 of March 15, 1946. Since the Secretary of Agriculture is the principal adviser of the President in matters relating to agriculture, and since final authority has been assigned to the Secretary by law in many matters of equal or greater importance, the requirement of Presidential approval of individual marketing orders may well be discontinued. Accordingly, the plan abolishes the function of the President relative to the approval of such orders.

Contract Settlement Functions

The Office of Contract Settlement was established by law in 1944 and shortly thereafter was placed by statute in the Office of War Mobilization and Reconversion. The principal purposes of the Office of Contract Settlement have been to prescribe the policies, regulations, and procedures governing the settlement of war contracts, and to provide an appeal board to hear and decide appeals from the contracting agencies in the settlement of contracts. A remarkable record has been achieved for the rapid settlement of war contracts, but among those which remain are some of the largest and most complex. Considerable time may be required to complete these cases and dispose of the appeals.

Though the functions of the Office of Contract Settlement cannot yet be terminated, it is evident that they no longer warrant the maintenance of a separate office. For this reason Executive Order No. 9809 of December 12, 1946, transferred the functions of the Director of Contract Settlement to the Secretary of the Treasury and those of the Office of Contract Settlement to the Department of the Treasury. As the central fiscal agency of the executive branch the Treasury Department is clearly the logical organization to carry to conclusion the over-all activities of the contract settlement program. The plan continues the present arrangement and abolishes the Office of Contract Settlement, thereby avoiding its reestablishment as a separate agency on the termination of title I of the First War Powers Act.

National Prohibition Act Functions

The act of May 27, 1930 (46 Stat. 427), imposed upon the Attorney General certain duties respecting administration and enforcement of the National Prohibition Act. By Executive Order No. 6639 of March 10, 1934, all of the powers and duties of the Attorney General respecting that act, except the power and authority to determine and to compromise liability for taxes and penalties, were transferred to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue. The excepted functions, however, were transferred subsequently to the Commissioner of Internal Revenue by Executive Order No. 9302 of February 9, 1943, issued under the authority of title I of the First War Powers Act, 1941.

Since the functions of determining taxes and penalties under various statutes and of compromise of liability therefor prior to reference to the Attorney General for suit are well-established functions of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, this minor function under the National Prohibition Act is more appropriately placed in the Bureau of Internal Revenue than in the Department of Justice.

Agricultural Research Functions

By Executive Order No. 9069 of February 23, 1942, six research bureaus, the Office of Experiment Stations, and the Agricultural Research Center were consolidated into an Agricultural Research Administration to be administered by an officer designated by the Secretary of Agriculture. The constituent bureaus and agencies of the Administration have, in practice, retained their separate identity. This consolidation and certain transfers of functions between the constituent bureaus and agencies have all been recognized and provided for in the subsequent appropriation acts passed by the Congress.

By the plan the functions of the eight research bureaus and agencies which are presently consolidated into the Agricultural Research Administration are transferred to the Secretary of Agriculture to be performed by him or under his direction and control by such officers or agencies of the Department of Agriculture as he may designate.

The benefits which have been derived from centralized review, coordination, and control of research projects and functions by the Agricultural Research Administrator have amply demonstrated the lasting value of this consolidation. By transferring the functions of the constituent bureaus and agencies to the Secretary of Agriculture, it will be possible to continue this consolidation and to make such further adjustments in the organization of agricultural research activities as future conditions may require. This assignment of functions to the Secretary is in accord with the sound and long-established practice of the Congress of vesting substantive functions in the Secretary of Agriculture rather than in subordinate officers or agencies of the Department.

Credit Union Functions

The plan makes permanent the transfer of the administration of Federal functions with respect to credit unions to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. These functions, originally placed in the Farm Credit Administration, were transferred to the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation by Executive Order No. 9148 of April 27, 1942. Most credit unions are predominantly urban institutions, and the credit-union program bears very little relation to the functions of the Farm Credit Administration. The supervision of credit unions fits in logically with the general bank supervisory functions of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation since 1942 has successfully administered the credit-union program, and the supervision of credit-union examiners has been integrated into the field and departmental organization of the Corporation. In the interests of preserving an organizational arrangement which operates effectively and economically, the program should remain in its present location.

War Assets Administration

The present organization for the disposal of surplus property is the product of 2½ years of practical experience. Beginning with the Surplus Property Board in charge of general policy and a group of agencies designated by it to handle the disposal of particular types of property, the responsibility for most of the surplus disposal has gradually been drawn together in one agency-the War Assets Administration-headed by a single Administrator. Experience has demonstrated the desirability of centralized responsibility in administering this most difficult program.

The reorganization plan will continue the centralization of surplus disposal functions in a single agency headed by an Administrator. This is accomplished by transferring the functions, personnel, property, records, and funds of the War Assets Administration created by Executive order to the statutory Surplus Property Administration. In order to avoid confusion and to maintain the continuity of operations, the name of the Surplus Property Administration is changed to War Assets Administration.

Because the plan combines in one agency, not only the policy functions now vested by statute in the Surplus Property Administrator, but also the immense disposal operations now concentrated in the temporary War Assets Administration, I have found it necessary to provide in the plan for an Associate War Assets Administrator, also appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate. It is essential that there be an officer who can assist the Administrator in the general management of the agency and who can take over the direction of its operations in case of the absence or disability of the Administrator or of a vacancy in his office.

Harry S. Truman.      


The White House, May 1, 1947.